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Using Franklin Articles+

Basic Search: Search Syntax


When two or more terms are entered, they are searched with an AND in between

         online learning is searched as: online AND learning

The default search logic is that all terms much match, except stopwords (see below).

Phrase Searching

To search for phrases, enclose the phrase in quotes. (It is not possible to truncate a word within the parens)

         "green buildings"

Boolean Operators (AND, OR, NOT)

Boolean operations: AND, OR, and NOT may be used in a basic search. Operators must be written in all capital letters to ensure that they are interpreted as a Boolean operators.

         "social media" AND (teen* OR adolescent* OR youth)

In a search statement with AND, OR, or NOT, Articles+ processes operators sequentially, from left to right, as the operators appear in the query. If a query contains parentheses, operators within parentheses are processed first.

To exclude items in an Articles+ search, use the NOT operator or minus sign (-) character before a term (no space between minus sign and term)

         science NOT "science fiction"          science -"science fiction"


Proximity searches limit result sets to terms within a specified number of words from each other. To perform a proximity search, enclose your search terms in quotation marks and use the tilde (~) followed by a number indicating the distance you want to allow between the search terms.

         "picasso photography"~10          "carol dweck"~3 - this is useful for capturing names given both last name or first name first.

Articles+ automatically invokes full-text proximity searching if two or more words searched are not entered as a phrase search. This proximity feature finds results when all search terms are within 200 words of each other, considered the typical length of a paragraph. These results are boosted over other results where the words are in the full text but farther apart from each other.

Wildcards / Truncation

The question mark (?) will match any one character. The question mark cannot be used at the end of a word.

         organi?ation will find organization or organisation

The asterisk (*) will match zero or more characters within a word or at the end of a word.

         col*r will find color or colour          creativ* will find creativity or creative

Wildcards cannot be used as the first character of a search, nor should a wildcard be used within double quotes (phrase searching).

A wildcard search does not necessarily return more results than the same search without the wildcard. This is because the language-specific search features, such as stemming, synonym mapping and spelling normalization, do not apply to the wildcard search. For example, a keyword search for archaeology may return more results than the wildcard search for archaeolog* , since the former matches both archaeology and archeology via English spelling normalization, but the latter matches only archaeology and not archeology .


Articles+ maintains language-specific lists of stop words, which are filtered out in the execution of searches except when they are part of formal phrase searches as described below. Stop words are chosen according to the following basic criteria.

  • is a function word, such as a definite/indefinite article, preposition, pronoun, conjunction and auxiliary verb
  • occur very frequently
  • does not have a common secondary meaning as a content word

Current English stop words in Articles+ include "a", "an", "the", "and", "but", "or", "it", "of", "on", "with", "in", "is" and "are", but do not include "will" since it has a common secondary meaning as a noun.

Term Weighting

The "^" operator allows the modification of the relevance weights of search terms, phrases, fielded searches or Boolean expressions. The format is term^number.

         leonardo horse^5 sculpture

horse^5 increases the original weight of the term and change the relevance ranking order. Any number can be used. Multipliers of less than 1 can be used: for example, a multiplier of 0.5 halves the original weight. When the "^" operator is used with a multi-term phrase or expression, the multiplier is applied to all of the terms in the phrase or expression. The "^" operator cannot be used within double quotes.

Last update: Wednesday, 07-Mar-2018 14:02:58 EST
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