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Searching: Boolean Operators

AND is the default operator between multiple words entered in Keyword and Keyword Expert searches.

Boolean operators may not be used in the basic keyword searches, but may be used in Keyword Expert searches

Operators may be in lower or upper case.

If a Boolean operator is included in a search phrase, put the phrase in quotes.

   "nickle and dime"
   "body and soul"
   "dazed and confused"

Enclose search terms and operators in parentheses to specify the order in which they are to be interpreted. Information within parentheses is interpreted first, then information outside parentheses is interpreted next.

   (life or death) and poem*

If there are nested parentheses, the innermost parenthetical expressions are interpreted first, then the next, until the full search statement has been interpreted.

   ((song* or poem*) and (life or death)) and antholog*

A dash before a word acts as NOT.

* Boolean operator   *  Examples Retrieves...   *
* AND *  rodgers AND hammerstein
*  children AND poverty
AND Retrieves records containing both terms. *
* OR *  sixties OR 60s OR 1960s
*  labor OR labour
OR Retrieves records containing either one or both terms. *
* NOT *  caffeine NOT nicotine
*  caffeine -nicotine
NOT Excludes records containing the second term. *
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