GLOSSARY OF TERMS
THE ELEVEN ILLUSTRATIONS
(Kit¹b-i-ta¬¹v»r-i-sh»shagar¹n Va°hairah va Bay¹n-i-¹l¹t-i-¹nh¹)
ajw¹’in - the seeds of a plant of the dill kind; a species of lovage or bishop’s weeds with the flavour of caraway seeds.
amalt¹s - Indian Laburanum (Cathartocarpus fistula). Its seeds normally used as a purgative.
¹mb¹ hald» - a kind of reddish turmeric used as an application on wounds.
ang»h» - a brazier
angusht¹nah (also angusht¹n¹) - a ring, specially worn on the thumb; a thimble.
angushtar» - a ring, made of gold or silver meant to be worn on the fingers.
angØz¹ , angØzh¹ - asafoetida; concreted resinous gum of various Persian plants of genus ferula with a strong smell of garlic and bitter taste, used in medicine.
ankaÅ» - an iron hook with a wooden handle.
‘aqir-qarh¹ - Pellitory (of Spain) a composite plant native of Barbary with a pungent root used as a local irritant. Pellitory (of the wall), a low bushy plant with small ovate leaves and greenish flowers, growing on or at the foot of walls.
¹rs» - a ring worn on the thumb with a tiny mirror in place of a gem.
¹s¹r - the same as ser. A weight of about 2 lbs.
asgandh nagauri - a medicinal plant, from Nagaur.
baddh» - possible addh»-badh»; a short necklace, should be well above the navel.
b¹l¹ - a large round earring, passing through a hole pierced in the centre of the ear lobe. It normally has two pearls with a green or red stone bead in the middle.
b¹l» - feminine of b¹l¹ ; b¹liy¹ñ however is an ornament worn in the upper part of the ear.
b¹nk - an anklet with a zigzag design worn by village women in eastern India.
bans locan - bamboo manna. An earthy concretion of milk-white colour found in the hollow of the bamboo plant.
barah (probably incorrect for barrah or bar¹h or barr¹h) - an ornament; cf. F. Steinglass, Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary, p. 173.
b¹zØ band - an ornament worn on the upper part of the arm; could be plain or studded with gems.
beb - a kind of grass used for thatching roof and making rope.
ben» - braided hair; also a small moon-like ornament worn on the forehead. Its popular name is ben¹.
bh¹Å - a furnace usually made of clay. The text describes three types of bh¹Ås. Bhuniy¹ bh¹Å which is made entirely of clay; bh¹r-i-kaÅ¹h» which is constructed with a large curved frying pan of iron; bh¹Å-i-hikÅ¹ is constructed using the lower halves of earthen drinking vessels.
bhart - a mixed metal composed of copper and lead.
bhai - a furnace.
bichhuv¹ - a ring worn on the toes by married Indian women.
bichhuv¹-va-anva - a ring generally furnished with little bells, worn on the big toe(s); anwa is derived from anguha, i.e., ‘big toe’.
bidhar - a short iron skewer or spit used in bangle manufacture.
bih» d n - bihi - quince, in India guava too. Bih» d n ‘quince seeds’. A quince is a hard acid yellowish pear-shaped fruit used as a preserve or as flavouring.
biranj - grain of rice; it's used for a jeweler's weight.
bul¹q - an ornament worn suspended from the septum of the nose; shaped like a new moon with a gem or a pearl hanging like a 'drop'.
bun - coffee beans, before they are roasted and ground. When ground, it is called qahw .
bundah (also bund¹) - drop-earrings.
bØr» - a kind of unrefined sugar.
bØ¹ - a special kind of vessel shaped like a bottle with a wide stomach made from specially strengthened glass. This vessel is used to purify/clean gold.
champ¹kal» - a long necklace made of beads shaped like buds of the champ¹ flower. The beads are always forty in number and strung in a thread to form a necklace. It is always made in gold.
ch¹nd - a semi-lunar gold ornament worn on the head.
ch¹n©¹ - a hammer-shaped like a crow's beak.
chandanh¹r - a long necklace composed of circular pieces; may be in gold or silver.
char²h - a wheel-based tool to wind wire.
ch¹rp¹’» - a bed (literally 'four-footed').
chimt» - forceps
chhallah (also chhall¹) - rings which can be worn both on fingers and toes. They are almost never studded with gems. They may be plain or engraved.
chhann» - a bracelet-type ornament with a lace-like design; usually village women wear it in silver.
chaank - 1/16 of a ser, i.e., nearly 2 ounces.
chhen» - a chisel.
chir¹ ‘et¹ - a kind of gentian. Gentian of the plant of the genus gentiana, usually has conspicuous blue flowers. Its root is used as a tonic and for stomach ailments; its flower is used as dye and also an antiseptic for burns.
chob ch»n» - china-root, a medicine.
chob majih - a type of bark which yields a red dye. It is used for dyeing cloth and also in drugs.
cho» - braided or plaited hair; an ornament worn on plaited hair. It can be threaded along with the braid or fixed on the braid itself.
chØr» - a generic name for all kinds of bangles.
©ah©ah» - a kind of ornament. Cf. ©ah©ah¹ adj. 'glowing, bright, overpowering'.
dar¹b» - pair of scales or weighing balance.
darzm¹l - a curved iron rod used for crimping.
dastpanah - tongs.
dhukdhuk» - an ornament worn like a pendant fitting the gap between the collar bones. It is always studded with precious stones which glitter in the dark. It is also called jugnØ or jugn».
dir’a - a measure slightly less than a yard. A dir’a is comprised of eleven girah, while a yard is comprised of twelve girah.
dØk - a spindle.
gaun¹ - bringing the wife home (from her father's) to her husband's house when she arrives at the age of puberty.
gandhak a÷wal¹s¹r - a special cleaned sulphur which has an acidic sour taste.
ghirb¹l - sieve.
ghungharØ - tiny pea-shaped bells attached to ornaments (i.e., p¹zeb etc.) like a fringe. When they are not meant to tinkle, they are filled with lac.
åam¹'»l - a cord, a thong, a shoulder belt. A necklace of flowers or rupees; a small Quran suspended to the neck as an amulet.
hansiy¹ - a sickle.
hansl» - an ornament worn around the neck. It is shaped like a new moon. It is thick but hollow. When worn it always stay above the collar-bone (hansl»).
h¹r - a long string-like necklace hanging from the neck to the navel. It can be made of gold, silver, pearls, gems or flowers.
h¹rmot»laÅ» - necklace comprised of pearls or pearl-like beads fashioned in gold.
hathoÅah - hammer.
jand¹r - an instrument used in the manufacture of gold, silver wires of the thick variety.
jantar» - a flat iron strip with holes of different sizes. These holes are used to lengthen and make finer, gold, silver and mixed metal wires.
jaushan - an ornament meant to be worn on the upper part of the arm. It usually is comprised of segments strung together. These segments are hollow but filled with lac.
jh¹lar - a fringe. Usually an edging comprised of gold/silver threads hanging like a fringe.
jh¹njan (also, jh¹njhan) - a thick, circular but hollow ornament worn around the ankle. Inside the hollow are tiny iron pebbles or beads which tinkle when the person wearing them walks.
jhØmak - an ornament worn on the forehead, normally studded with gems. It often is comprised of seven or nine strings of pearls, or gold chains gathered together at the upper end. At the lower end, the strings are attached to a semi-circular pattern of half moons and stars.
jugnØ - same as dhukdhuk».
kal¹battØ - silk thread covered with gold or silver. Or simply gold or silver thread. Or silk thread twisted together with gold or silver thread.
kamr» angarkh¹ - a short jacket or waistcoat.
kamr» aƒlas - a satin waistcoat.
kangan - an ornament for the wrist, circular, with a spikey or serrated edging.
k¹ns - a tall species of grass that grows luxuriously on waste and sandy soil, may be used for rope making.
k¹nah - a calipers.
kanhm¹l¹ - a necklace worn around the throat. It is like a rosary with beads of gold or silver or crystal or pearls.
kaÅ¹h» - curved frying pan made of iron.
kaÅah (also kaÅ¹) - a massive ring or bracelet, worn on the wrist and ankle, usually made of gold or silver.
karan phØl - also called jhumk . An earring in the style of drop-earrings. It is shaped like an inverted bowl with a fringe and a drop suspended from the middle of the inverted bowl.
karchul» - long iron spoon.
kaÅh» - a dish consisting of a thick gravy made from a mixture of curds and gram flour dressed with spices.
k¹sn» - Endive, white succory or chicory; any plant of the genus cichorium. Species of these known in the United States as endive, with long smooth blanched leaves, eaten as salad; its root ground and roasted as addition to or substitute for coffee. Another species called endive in England, but chicory in United States has curly leaves and is eaten as salad.
k¹» - calipers.
khariy¹ - chalk.
kink» - pea-shaped ornament similar to tiny bells. Same as ghungarØ.
kiw¹ch - Cowach; a tropical leguminous plant; its pod has stinging hairs.
kØch» - brush.
kuk» - a medicinal plant; wolf’s bane, aconite.
kun©ah - a shallow dish or bowl.
lab¹d¹ - a quilted cloak.
lakan - an ornament designed to hang; like a drop-earring on a pendant.
lodh - the bark of the tree symplocos racemosa, which is used in dyeing and also for medicinal purposes.
m¹l¹ - a tool which is like an iron pike; used for manufacturing glass bangles.
manih¹r, also manhiy¹r or maniy¹r - a caste who make or sell glass bangles, beads etc. They are generally Muslims.
m¹shah (m¹sh¹, m¹¬¹) - a weight of 8 ratt»s.
makah - a round earthen drinking vessel.
mundr» - a finger ring; a signet.
maund - a measure of weight comprised of 40 sers, amounting to 82 2/7 lbs. avoirdupois.
muqqaish - a distinctive embroidery made from flattened but extremely delicate gold and silver thread. The pattern resembles the seed of a white herb called gokarØ. It’s about the size of a gram. Embroidery of this pattern is sometimes referred to simply as gokarØ.
mØnj - a sort of rush or grass out of which ropes are made.
mØsl» safed - a tap root.
nath - a large ring worn through a hole pierced in the left nostril. It usually has two pearls and a red bead strung on it.
naugir» - a bracelet-type ornament. It is made up of segments. Each segment is studded with a different gem. Nau means ‘nine’, therefore nine different gems are used.
naunag¹ - same as nauratan.
nauratan - an ornament worn on the upper part of the arm, made up of segments studded with nine different gems.
naus¹dar - sal-ammoniac.
n¹'y - blowpipe.
nih¹’» - anvil.
pachhall» - silver ring worn specifically on the toe. See also chall¹ .
pahunch» - a specially designed distinctive ornament worn around the wrists. It is comprised of segments studded with only one type of gem, like emerald or turquoise, which are strung together.
pachlar» (also pachlaÅ¹/») - a long necklace comprised of five rows of chains. If there are two strands it is called du-laÅ¹/» , if seven, then sat-laÅ¹/».
pans¹r» - a vendor of drugs, spices, herbs and groceries.
p¹s¹ - a lump of silver from which wire is drawn.
patang - Sappan wood; the bark of a certain tree which when boiled yields red colour and is used for medicinal purposes too.
phiraun» - a tool resembling a screwdriver. In the process of wire manufacture it is used to help rotate the wheel (carKH).
phu¡kn¹ / phu¡kn» - blowpipe.
porv¹ - por means joints in the fingers. Porv¹ are rings like chall¹ to be worn on the fingers.
pot - a type of jandar used for manufacturing gold/silver wire. With the pot 22 yards of wire can be drawn from one tol¹ of p¹s¹ (a lump of silver).
qab¹ - a long gown with the skirt and breast open and sometimes slits in the armpits.
qaranfal - a kind of clove.
r¹l - resin.
ratt» - a weight equal to 8 barley corns; the artificial ratt» averages nearly 2.5 grains.
the bringing home a wife to consummate a marriage (it is a ceremony
intermediate between the marriage and the gaun¹.
a moulding box. rupiy¹ -
the weight of the sicca rupee, or about 179.66 grains. A tol¹
weighs 12 m¹¬¹ or 210 grains. safed¹
k¹shgar» - a powder obtained from burning the horns of the antelope
(barah singh ) which is mixed with buttermilk and applied on the
face for getting rid of freckles. Generally used by women. In Iran it
is called safed . In India it is always referred to as safed
k¹shgar». sa’lab misr»
- Salep; the root of a species of orchis, Orchis mascula
considered particularly in the East to be a strong restorative and
aphrodisiac. sal¹²h -
a bar of iron, a stake, an ingot of gold or silver. satlaÅah
rezah - a moulding box.
rupiy¹ - the weight of the sicca rupee, or about 179.66 grains. A tol¹ weighs 12 m¹¬¹ or 210 grains.
safed¹ k¹shgar» - a powder obtained from burning the horns of the antelope (barah singh ) which is mixed with buttermilk and applied on the face for getting rid of freckles. Generally used by women. In Iran it is called safed . In India it is always referred to as safed k¹shgar».
sa’lab misr» - Salep; the root of a species of orchis, Orchis mascula considered particularly in the East to be a strong restorative and aphrodisiac.
sal¹²h - a bar of iron, a stake, an ingot of gold or silver.
satlaÅah (also satlaÅ¹)- see pachlaÅ».
sel¹ - a short wooden spear.
sand¹n - anvil.
san©s» - pair of pincers or tongs or forceps.
sendh¹ - white rock salt found in the area of the Indus River.
sh¹²h - a cupping instrument.
s»²h - a skewer, a spit, any long thin piece of metal.
sil - a flat slab of stone used for sharpening instruments.
silkah (also silk¹) - an iron rod with an earthen tip shaped like a bird's heart. It is used to shape a glass bangle.
sit¹r¹ - a kind of embroidery involving the making of a pattern of small stars in between other embroidery.
sohan - a file.
ta’v»z b¹zØ - a square-shaped artistically designed ornament, hollow from inside, in which a charm can be concealed and protected. It’s worn on the upper part of the arm like an armlet.
thapn» - wooden mallet. Tool used in the manufacture of lac bangles.
happ¹ - a mold or form into which plates of metal, etc. are beaten to be formed into ornaments; a stamp of made of iron or copper on which floral designs are engraved. It is used to stamp these designs on gold or silver ornaments.
»k¹ - an ornament worn on the middle of the forehead; usually round with a one-inch diameter. It is generally studded with gems and has a fringe of pearls.
h»krah - lower half of earthen drinking vessel (makah).
t»l» - a thin wooden or iron rod (like a match stick or wire).
tol¹ - a weight of 12 or 16 m¹¬¹s, especially gold or silver. As a jeweler's weight, in practice calculated at 12 m¹¬¹s and weighs 210 grains.
toÅah (also toÅ¹) - an ornament worn on the feet just below the ankle. ToÅ¹ does not have ghungarØ or ‘bells’ on it, while the p¹zeb a similar type of ornament has a fringe of tiny bells. The toÅ¹ usually consists of three chains strung together.
zanbØr - a vice, forceps.
zanj»r - a necklace with a design like a chain.
zanj»rmot»cØr - a gold chain (necklace) made of round rings.
zardoz» - embroidery done with a fine gold thread. The patterns are mostly floral.