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The Eleven Illustrations[1]

by

Ghulam Yahya

Edited and Translated by

Mehr Afshan Farooqi


folio 1, verso This humblest of God's servants, full of boundless sins, the servant of scholars, called Ghulam Yahya, son of Maulvi Imaduddin Lepakni says; after countless praises to the Maker, who, with his perfect tools of creation has manufactured all possible figures; and from the hidden space of non-existence, brought them into the shops of existence, where the light of His presence shines; furthermore, unlimited salutations on that professional who made over to the good natured buyers, the merchandise of instruction and education without desiring any price.

Now, during these times of auspicious beginnings and happy endings; from the office of the honourable dweller of the house of justice and high virtue and exalted rank, seated firmly on the throne of fame, the chair of good fortune, adorned by his radiant presence; enhancer of the beauty of the throne of justice and auspicious character, and extender of the decoration and beauty of the chain of folio 2, recto justice and success; pearl of the oyster of greatness and good fortune; valuable ruby of pomp and grandeur; provider of the needs of the helpless; ointment for the wounds of the wretched; generosity incarnate, possessor of the courage of selflessness, I mean Mr. Robert Glyn Saheb Bahadur, Magistrate and Judge of the District of Bareilly, may his good fortune be perpetuated, the parallel of generosity, issued forth an order for this ignorant person to write the true details of some of the craftsmen and the names of the tools of manufacture and production and their dress and their manners.

And, because a complete description would cause a lengthy discourse, whatever could show its face and make itself clear from the canopy of concealment through observation and investigation was entrusted to the tongue of the elegantly writing pen. I regarded it a cause worthy of pride. This book I call 'The Eleven Illustrations.'

I pray to God that, as long as the shop of the world of possibilities is full of the merchandise of perpetuity, the capital of good reputation of that person, who is a source of glory, may go from hand to hand among those of this world who can hear.


A DESCRIPTION OF MANUFACTURING GLASS

This is the way it is prepared. First of all, alkaline soil, which is found in salty and moist areas, and for this reason used by washer men for washing clothes, should be procured. Then, beds in the style of flowerbeds are dug in the ground and filled to the brim with water. Then, alkaline soil is poured into them and leveled up. folio 2, versoAfter the water has evaporated, the crust that is formed on the beds should be collected and put in the furnace and a fire lit. It should be allowed to bake for six days. This type of glass is called siyıh (black).

And, if the alkaline soil is first baked in the furnace and shorı, i.e., saltpetre is mixed in it, the ratio being for every 100 maunds of earth, 4 maunds of saltpetre be added. In this manner, a white, slightly yellowish glass is obtained. This type of glass is called shorı. Sometimes, due to the effect of smoke, the white glass becomes tinged with a black or greenish hue. This is called shorğ. After it cools down, it hardens, and then it is broken into fragments.

Chiefly a community called manihır, and also some other communities both Hindu and Muslim, manufacture glass in the areas of Sambal and Sikandrı, as well as some other parts. There it is sold at the rate of one to one and one-half maunds for a rupee. Here it sells at the rate of one maund for one rupee or a rupee and a half.

And by mixing sulphurate of zinc and lead (to the alkaline soil) a grass green glass is obtained. If in the grass green sulphurate of zinc and lead are added one more time, sabz ­onkğ is obtained. And by adding sambhrah, which is a kind of stone, mauve colored glass is obtained. And by adding retı and setı, i.e., powdered stone, which is found in the mountains of Betul and the Deccan, blue colored glass is made.

folio 3, recto, DRAWING OF FURNACE FOR GLASS-MAKING


folio 4, recto

A DESCRIPTION OF BANGLE MANUFACTURE

These are manufactured with six implements. The first is a long iron spoon (karchĜli) which is used to put the raw glass into the furnace. The second is an iron hook (ankaĊğ) with a wooden handle. With it they wrap the glass on the tip of the iron bar and take it out of the furnace. The glass sticks on the iron bar and with a tool called mılı, which is like an iron pike or lance, it is separated. With a bidhar, i.e., a short iron skewer or spit, they give the bangle a shape like a ring, to suit the wrist. Then an iron silkah, i.e., a rod which has an earthen tip shaped like a bird's heart, is used to shape the bangle into a circular form appropriate for a woman's wrist.

First they manufacture plain bangles. Then they colour them from underneath with the help of lac and sulphurate of zinc called pannğ. Bangles are of several varieties. There is a type, which is sold at the rate of 900 up to 1,100 for a rupee. In one working day, a man can manufacture up to 400 of those. A second type is sold at the rate of 3,500 to 4,000 for a rupee. In one day, a man can make up to 800 such bangles. A third type is sold at the rate of 2,000 for a rupee and a man can make up to 600 such bangles in a day.

folio 4, verso Upper class Muslims and Hindus wear these varieties (of bangles). There are about twenty varieties, distinguished by different colours. Each variety has a different name. If, on the first variety there is silver work, a set can be sold for as much as a rupee. Other varieties are sold at the rate of from one anna up to four annas (apparently per set). After deducting the cost of glass, fuel and other expenses, a bangle-maker can earn from one anna to two annas, and some of them even up to three or four annas per day.

In these parts, the manihır are the only community to manufacture glass bangles. However, around Kasgunj and Etawah, other respectable communities, both Hindu and Muslim, also manufacture them. And here (i.e., around Bareilly), not more than eight persons can sit and work at a furnace. But in the areas of Panipat and Karnal, sixteen persons can sit and work at a furnace. These craftsmen are very good. Their women mostly live in the villages. And often, when in the city, their women wear a lahangı instead of trousers. And the rest of their clothing is just like that of other inhabitants of the country, in keeping with their status. The community of manihırs are Muslim.

folio 5, recto, DRAWING OF TOOLS USED IN GLASS BANGLE MANUFACTURE


folio 6, recto

TOOLS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LAC BANGLES

Lac bangles are made with the following tools. An iron spindle, a wooden board, which is called patrı, a thapnğ, i.e., wooden mallet, and a short wooden spear called selı.

First, the lac is stuck on the spindle and heated. Then it is placed on the above-mentioned board and drawn long in the form of a bar. Then the desired length needed to make a bangle is cut off. With the help of the thapnğ it is given a circular shape around the selı and finally finished to fit a woman's wrist. After this it is coloured white with the help of pannğ (foil); red with the help of a red powder called shangarf, green with indigo mixed with yellow arsenic, and black with plain indigo.

For a set (of bangles) the price is one anna to two and a half annas. And a custom-made or made-to-order set may be sold for up to eight annas.

Bangles made of lac are stronger than glass bangles. One man in a day can produce up to four sets of bangles. One set consists of thirty to forty bangles. These bangles are worn by Kurmğ, Kisın, Kahır, Gujar and Murı'Ĝ and some other Hindus. They are not worn by Muslims.

Manihırs also manufacture them around Shahjahanpur etc., in addition to the lakherı community, which is Hindu. The lakherı community use both glass and lac bangles. Hindu men often wear a dhotğ (a cloth worn around the waist, passing between the legs and tucked behind) instead of trousers. folio 6, verso Their women wear a lahangı; in fact, so do most of the lowborn Muslim women. The rest of their clothes are like upper class people.

folio 7, recto, DRAWING OF TOOLS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LAC BANGLES


folio 8, recto

ABOUT A CRIMPER AND HIS TOOLS

Crimpers, who are tailors, can be either Hindu or Muslim. They fold a piece of cloth into two and in between the folds place a va¬lğ, i.e., a kind of paper used for practicing calligraphy. They place the folded material on a ma­kı and heating the iron darzmıl, rub it on the fold. A second iron is heated in the fire in readiness for use. Whenever the first iron cools, it is put back into the fire and the second one is now used just like the first one.

The rate for crimping a cap varies from one-half anna to two annas. From two annas to four annas for a chintz kamrğ angarkhı, and for kamrğ aƒlas etc. from four annas to a rupee, and for a chintz qabı it is six to eight annas. For a satin qabı the rate is from a rupee to two and one-half rupees. For a chintz labıdı it is eight annas to twelve annas. And for a satin or brocade labıdı, the rate of crimping varies from a rupee to two rupees. And the variation in rate of remuneration depends on the diversity or intricacies of the design to be crimped.

Actually there are four types of crimping: the first, dır gulğ, the second, ıb lahar, the third, mahramıt, and the fourth is jamnğ. There are other variations of these four types, depending on the design etc. There are many other skills (of crimping) and they have no fixed names. In fact, each variation of the folio 8, verso above-mentioned four categories is attributed to the category it resembles most, and is counted as one of the (original) four.

In one day, one person can earn four to six annas. And if he is a very good craftsman, he can earn up to eight annas.

The men belonging to the Hindu tailor community wear a dhotğ and their women wear lahangı instead of trousers, and wear gold and silver jewelry, etc. according to their means. They do not wear jewelry made of brass. Women of the Muslim tailor community wear a lahangı instead of trousers and jewelry too, according to their financial capacity.

In marriages, on the first day, the food offered to the groom's party is rice and kaĊhğ. On the second day, they are served bĜri, or, if they can afford them, sweets. During the marriage ceremony, wine is not drunk. But it is drunk on occasions other than marriages. And, amongst the Muslim tailor community, it is traditional to offer rice and a pulse called mısh and kaĊhğ. The actual marriage ceremony is essentially the same as followed by other Muslims and Hindus.

folio 9, recto, PAINTING OF A CRIMPER

folio 10, recto, DRAWING OF A CRIMPER'S TOOLS


folio 11, recto

ABOUT GRAM PARCHERS AND THEIR TOOLS

Gram parchers, i.e., lighters of furnaces, who are in Hindi called Bhurjğ, are a community who earn their living by roasting gram. And for these services there is no fixed payment; but for roasting the grain they get by way of fee, a portion of the grain, proportionate with the load to be roasted. The furnace, i.e., the space for roasting the grain, is called bhıĊ in Hindi, and is of three types: one is bhuniyı bhıĊ, and is made entirely of clay. The second is bhıĊ-i-kaĊıhğ which is constructed with a large, curved frying pan of iron. The third is bhıĊ-i-­hikĊa, which is constructed using the lower halves of earthen drinking vessels.

Their men wear a kind of loin cloth called lango­ı, and their women folk wear a lahangı instead of trousers and wear jewellery made of sulphurate of zinc. In their marriages they serve rice and a pulse called mısh. Muslim bhurjğs, if they have the means, also serve the members of the marriage party meat and nın and pilaw.

The Hindus of the bhurjğ community, after marrying their daughters, send them off to the groom's house for five or six days. After this, they call them back. Thereafter, the ceremony of gaunı and raunı, as customary in their community, takes place and then the daughter is allowed to go. The duration of time that should elapse before gaunı-raunı takes place is not fixed. This custom is extant among all Hindus and also Muslims of the lower class.

folio 12, recto, DRAWING OF A FURNACE FOR PARCHING GRAIN


folio 13, recto

ABOUT CH¸RP¸½ WEAVERS AND THEIR TOOLS

The community of chırpı’ğ; weavers, i.e., kha­bunı, weave chırpı’ğs in several styles--like chaukarğ and lagpahır and guldır plain. The following wages are current : for chaukari one-half anna to one anna; for lagpahır, one anna to two and one-half annas, and for guldır plain from three annas to five annas. Lower prices are payable if the weaving is done with the common kinds of string. If they weave with extremely fine strings and weave floral or chequered patterns or plain squares, they charge wages up to one rupee.

One craftsman, in one day, can weave up to eight chırpı’ğs in the chaukari style, up to four in the lagpahır and up to two in the guldır plain style. For designs like plain square or chequered board, only one chırpı'ğ can be woven in two days.

In addition to the community of chırpı'ğ weavers, others also know this craft. The above-mentioned community lives in cities and towns. Often in villages, people of other communities also do this work in return for money, and sometimes for free.

String made from beb which is used most, costs one rupee four annas to two rupees per maund. String made from mĜnj is sold at two rupees to three rupees per maund. And string made of kıns is not sold in the market; but in the villages poor people use string made out of kıns. Beb grows in the foothills and mĜnj and kıns are plentiful in these parts.

The men folk of the chırpı'ğ weavers wear loincloths and a shawl or wrap, and a turban. Their women wear a lahangı and a shawl and folio 13, verso a kurtğ, which is a type of blouse. As for jewellery, they wear kangan, hanslğ and barra (?), all made of sulphurate of zinc. In marriages, on the first day, rice and the pulse called mısh is cooked. On the second day, purğ, which is a kind of bread, is served to the members of the marriage party who are made to sit together with the members of the household for eating. Only their men folk drink wine. And, by the way, of tools they have an ax called tğsha.

folio 14, recto, DRAWING OF TOOLS OF CH¸RP¸'½ WEAVERS


folio 15, recto

DESCRIPTION OF A PANS¸R½'S SHOP AND THE GOODS SOLD THERE

Grocers (pansırğ) is a community of Hindu shopkeepers who bring merchandise from Iran and Kabul and ? and the Deccan and the hills and from oceans. They bring minerals and dried greens, which are used for making medicines and are eaten too; and dried fruits, excepting those which are sold by fruiterers, are kept in earthen pots and sold. Because of the large variety (of goods) that they deal in, it is impossible to give details of all in this small space. But some things from each part of the various parts of the world mentioned above, have been listed, each separately, and the cost price and the selling price of each item has been brought to the tip of this pen.

During marriages, on the first day they serve rice and mısh, which in the parlance of the Hindus is called 'uncooked food.' On the second day, purğ and kachorğ, which is called 'cooked food', are served. If they can afford, sweets too are offered to the groom's party. The convention of hospitality and of feeding the marriage party in their homes is not less than three days. If they are really well to do, it is customary to prolong the feasting for some more days. Their women wear gold and silver jewellery. As for their dress, they wear a lahangı instead of trousers and their men folio 15, verso generally wear dhotğ and sometimes wear trousers too. The rest of their attire is just like others.

Some Muslims also do this business. Income depends on the scarcity or abundance of the goods to be sold. Prices of the individual articles of sale keep varying.

folio 15, verso

TABLE I

MERCHANDISE FROM THE DECCAN

Goods

Cost Price Per Ser

Sale Price Per Ser

Supırğ Chikanğ Rs 1/12 annas Rs 1/14 annas
Morach Siyıh Rs 20/4 annas Rs 20/5 annas
Tea Rs 4/- Rs 4/8 annas
Nutmeg Rs 8/- Rs 9/-
Pellitory, ‘aqir-qarhı
(Anacyclus pyrethram)
Rs 2/- Rs 2/8 annas
Mace (Jıvitrğ) Rs 12/- Rs 13/-
Bamboo - manna
(bans-locan)
Rs 30/- Rs 31/-
Cardamom - white Rs 7/8 annas Rs 8/-

MERCHANDISE FROM THE EAST

Goods

Cost Price Per Maund

Sale Price Per Maund

Supırğ Nınak Chandi
(kind of betel nut)
Rs 12/- Rs 13/-
Supırğ Jahızğ
(kind of betel nut)
Rs 9/8 annas Rs 10/8 annas
Qaranfal
Rs 1/4 annas (per ser) Rs 1/8 annas (per ser)
Alum - White Rs 9/- Rs 10/-
Red/ Vermillion Powder
(sindĜr)
Rs 3/8 annas (per rupiya) Rs 4/8 annas (per rupiya)
Vermillion Powder
(shangarf)
Rs 3/8 annas (per ser) Rs 3/12 annas (per ser)

folio 16, recto

TABLE II

MERCHANDISE FROM THE DECCAN

Goods

Cost Price Per Ser

Sale Price Per Ser

Asgandh Nagauri Rs 9/- (per maund) Rs 10/- (per maund)
Bun (coffee beans) Rs 1/- Rs 1/4 annas
Tumeric (ımbı haldğ) 10 annas 12 annas
MĜslğ - White Rs 11/- (per maund) ?Rs 20/- (per maund)?
Cubebs (jungle cloves) Rs 3/- Rs 3/8 annas
? Harvi ? Rs 10/- (per maund) Rs 12/- (per maund)
Blue Vitriol Rs 1/12 annas Rs 2/-
Cinnamon Rs 4/- Rs 5/-

MERCHANDISE FROM THE EAST

Goods

Cost Price Per Maund

Sale Price Per Maund

Sulphur Rs 10/- Rs 11/-
Dry Ginger Rs 9/- Rs 9/8 annas
Camphor Rs 4/- (per ser) Rs 4/4 annas (per ser)
Gum 11 annas (per ser) 12 annas (per ser)
Coconut - Dry Rs 1/8 annas (per 100) Rs 1/12 annas (per 100)
Coconut (with milk) Rs 1/- (per ser) Rs 1/8 annas (per ser)
Almond Rs 20/- Rs 27/-
Dates Rs 14/- Rs 17/8 annas
Talc/ Micabraq
abraq khurd (fine grain)
Rs 20/- Rs 25/-
Bun (Coffee Beans) Rs 25/- Rs 30/-


folio 16, verso

TABLE III

MERCHANDISE FROM THE EAST

Goods

Cost Price Per Ser

Sale Price Per Ser

Safedı Kıshgharğ 9 annas 9.5 annas
Talc / Mica (coarse grain) Rs 2/- Rs 2/8 annas
Yellow Arsenic / Ratsbane Rs 1/4 annas Rs 1/8 annas
Amber 13 annas 15 annas
Sandalwood - Red 4.5 annas (per rupiya) 5.5 annas (per rupiya)
Sandalwood - White 12 annas 13 annas
Myrobalan
(kind of astringent nut)
Rs 4/12 annas (per maund) Rs 5/- (per maund)
Patang Rs 8/- (per maund) Rs 10/- (per maund)
Gum of dhaur
(dhaur is a type of sugarcane)
Rs 15/- (per maund) Rs 16/- (per maund)
Gum of dhaur (Cleaned) Rs 10/- (per maund) Rs 11/- (per maund)


folio 17, recto

TABLE IV

MERCHANDISE FROM THE EAST

Goods

Cost Price Per Ser

Sale Price Per Ser

Sulphur ımvala sır Rs 1/- Rs 1/8 annas
MasĜr (pulse) Rs 1/8 annas Rs 1/10 annas
Nutmeg Rs 5/- Rs 6/-
Bans-locan
(bamboo-manna, tabıshğr)
Rs 20/- Rs 25/-
Mercury Rs 3/- Rs 3/8 annas
Mace Rs 3/- Rs 4/-
Chewing Tobacco Rs 15/- (per maund) Rs 16/- (per maund)
Harvi ? Puravi
(? from the East)
Rs 4/- (per maund) Rs 5/- (per maund)
Cardamom - White Rs 4/- Rs 5/-
Cinnamon Rs 1/- Rs 1/4 annas


folio 17, verso

TABLE V

MERCHANDISE FROM THE MOUNTAINS

Goods

Cost Price Per Maund

Sale Price Per Maund

Dried Ginger Rs 10/- Rs 11/-
Zard Chob (tumeric) Rs 7/- Rs 7/4 annas
Bhalıwan Dojıt
(a kind of fruit)
Rs 8/- Rs 10/-
Bhalıwan Girahdır Rs 18/- Rs 20/-
Myrobalan Large (har) Rs 2/- Rs 2/8 annas
Asafoetida Rs 18/- Rs 20/-
Catechu White Rs 14/- Rs 15/-
Myrobalan of Zang
(harzangğ)
Rs 7/- Rs 8/-
Borax (sohıgı) Rs 14/- Rs 15/-
Catechu Rs 11/- Rs 12/-

MERCHANDISE FROM THE WEST

Goods

Cost Price Per Ser

Sale Price Per Ser

Almonds of Kabul Rs 1/8 annas Rs 1/12 annas
Almonds of Dostpur Rs 22/- (per maund) Rs 24/- (per maund)
Raisins 11 annas 12 annas
Currants 14 annas 15 annas
Figs - Dried 12 annas 14 annas
Persian Plums Dried 10 annas 11 annas
Liquorice 14 annas Rs 1/-
Apricot - Dried 14 annas 15 annas
Pomegranate - Seedless Rs 3/- Rs 3/4 annas
Pomegranate - Seeded
(Vilıyati)
Rs 2/- Rs 2/4 annas


folio 18, recto

TABLE VI

MERCHANDISE FROM THE MOUNTAINS

Goods

Cost Price Per Maund

Sale Price Per Maund

Honey Rs 12/- Rs 13/-
Wax Rs 1/4 annas (per ser) Rs 1/8 annas (per ser)
Chirı’etı (Gentian) Rs 12/- Rs 13/-
Honey (second quality) Rs 10/- Rs 11/-
Lıl Mğrch (red pepper) Rs 3/8 annas (per rupiya) Rs 4/8 annas (per rupiya)
Cirı'eta, (second quality)
(Gentian)
Rs 8/- Rs 9/-
Wolf's Bane Rs 13/- Rs 14/-
Cardamom (Large) Rs 20/- Rs 21/-
Sendhı (white rock salt) Rs 9/- Rs 9/8 annas
Rıl Chğdı
(Resin, Cleaned)
Rs 8/- Rs 9/-

MERCHANDISE FROM THE WEST

Goods

Cost Price Per Ser

Sale Price Per Ser

Quince Seeds Rs 1/12 annas Rs 3/- ?
Pistachios Rs 1/8 annas Rs 1/10 annas
Sa’lab Misrğ, second quality
(Salep)
Rs 10/- Rs 12/-
Sa’lab Misrğ, first quality
(Salep)
Rs 15/- Rs 18/-
Asafoetida, first quality
angĜzı/angĜzhı
Rs 3/- Rs 4/-
Asafoetida Lahsunğ
garlic flavored
Rs 1/8 annas Rs 1/10 annas
Chob Majğ­h Rs 30/- (per maund) Rs 32/- (per maund)
Sal-ammoniac (Nausıdar) Rs 1/- Rs 1/2 annas
Ox-tongue / Bugloss 14 annas Rs 1/-
Viola odorata (Banafshı) 12 annas 13 annas


folio 18, verso

TABLE VII

ITEMS WHICH ARE GROWN HERE

Goods

Cost Price Per Maund

Sale Price Per Maund

Anise Seeds Rs 3/- Rs 3/8 annas
Coriander Rs 1/- Rs 1/8 annas
Endive / Chicory Rs 5/- Rs 6/-
Ajwı’in Rs 2/8 annas Rs 3/-
Garlic Rs 2/- Rs 2/8 annas
White Cumin Seeds Rs 16/- Rs 17/-
Tobacco Rs 5/- Rs 6/-
Gum (from BabĜl Tree) Rs 13/- Rs 14/-
Red Rose Petals, dried Rs 2/- (per ser) Rs 2/8 annas (per ser)
Amaltıs (seeds) Rs 2/- (per ser) Rs 2/8 annas (per ser)
Cowach, red Rs 4/- (per rupiya) Rs 4/4 annas (per rupiya)
Lodha, dried Rs 4/- (per rupiya) Rs 4/4 annas (per rupiya)

Folio, 19, recto, PAINTING OF A PANS¸R½

Folio 20, recto, DRAWING OF THE POTS OF A PANS¸R½


Folio 21, recto

ABOUT WIRE MAKING FROM IRON AND SILVER ETC., AND ITS TOOLS

Iron wires are made with the jantar, the aggal, the zanbĜr, the iron sohan, the munna (?) and the wooden jandır which is also called char²h. This is the way they are made. First, the iron smith takes an iron rod, maybe half a yard to three yards in length, with the thickness of a reed pen and makes it smooth on four sides. Then it is sold to the wire makers at the rate of two ısır for a rupee. After this, any one (they work in pairs) of the wire-makers files thin the bead of the iron rod and then pushes it through the hole of the jantar and the aggal; and puts the munna between the two ends and then twists it with the pliers which is held with a chain. The second person takes the iron chain and puts it around the iron rod fixed in the jandır, sits on an earthen platform and rotates the wooden jandır with hand and feet. Thus the wire becomes finer and is wrapped around the jandır. Some jandırs have four spokes and some six. After this they push it through another finer hole. So in this way, from the various holes in the jantar, each finer than the other, they repeat this procedure until a stage comes when the wire is fine enough to make delicately thin needles.

And it is then sold to the bisıtğ at the rate of one ısır for a rupee. The wires for sitır and tambĜra, and silver and brass wires too, are prepared just like Folio 21, verso the wire for making needles. But the tools for preparing those are smaller and more delicate. Wire for a tambĜra costs up to one and one-half rupees for one ısır. And wire for sitır is sold at the rate of four rupees for one ısır. And silver and brass and zinc wires are manufactured in the same way. And labour charges for silver wire-making are one-half anna per tolı. They buy brass at the rate of one ısır for a rupee and six annas, and sell the wire at the rate of two rupees twelve annas, to three rupees per ısır. They buy zinc at the rate of fourteen to fifteen annas per ısır, and the wire is sold for up to two rupees per ısır. Generally, this work is done by goldsmiths and iron smiths who may be Hindu or Muslim. Rarely do members of other communities do this work.

Their marriage customs are like other iron smiths and goldsmiths. Some ceremonies are different though, but details here would be too lengthy. Their men generally wear dhotğ; and their women, in fact all Hindu women and low born Muslim women too, wear a lahangı instead of trousers. They wear gold, silver, brass or zinc jewellery, etc., depending on what they can afford. The rest of their clothes are like other inhabitants of this part of the world.

Iron wire suitable for making needles requires two men at each workbench. They can manufacture in a day three-quarter to one ısır of wire, which is suitable for needle making; one ısır of wire, suitable for a tambĜra and one quarter ısır of wire, suitable for sitır.

Folio 22, recto, PAINTING OF THE MANUFACTURE OF IRON AND SILVER WIRE

Folio, 23, recto, DRAWING OF TOOLS FOR MANUFACTURING IRON AND SILVER WIRE


Folio 24, recto

ABOUT MAKING SILK THREAD COVERED WITH GOLD AND SILVER THREAD, AND GOLD AND SILVER LACES AND EDGINGS AND ITS TOOLS

Silver thread is of six types. First, is the kalıbattĜ thread which is one thousand, two hundred yards per tolı. Second is the thread for laces and edgings-- and this is not a continuous length, which is nine hundred yards per tolı. Third is again, a thread for laces and trimmings which is five hundred yards per tolı. Fourth is the thread for muqqaish and jhılar which is four hundred yards per tolı. Fifth is the thread for zardozğ which is one hundred and twenty-five yards per tolı. Sixth is the thread for making sitır which is sixty yards per tolı.

The following wages are current. For the first type, twenty-five rupees per one hundred tolı. For the second, fourteen rupees, for the third, seven rupees, for the fourth, fifth and sixth from four to six rupees.

In one day, one person can prepare nine mısh to one tolı thread of the first type, two tolı of the second, up to four tolı of the third, and up to ten tolıs of the fourth, fifth and sixth types.

Thread for gold embroidery and sitır are manufactured in Lucknow and Shahjahanabad and Akbarabad. And the measure for these threads is dir’a which is comprised of eleven girah. Most of these types of thread are manufactured by Hindus and Muslims of good family. People Folio 24, verso of low communities are rarely taught this art. One person can earn from four to ten annas per day in a day's work.

Folio 25, recto, DRAWING OF TOOLS USED TO MAKE SILVER BORDER THREADS


Folio 26, recto

A DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIOUS TYPES OF KAB¸BS AND METHOD OF COOKING THEM AND THEIR TOOLS

Kabıbs are of several kinds. One kind is dampu²ht. This is the recipe for it. Take a kid she-goat or a baby sheep, four or five months old, nicely fattened. Get it slaughtered, remove the skin, slit the stomach about the size of a fist, remove the intestines and other offal, wash thoroughly and clean it really well. Put inside the stomach varieties of dried fruit like pistachios, almonds, raisins, etc., or whatever one may desire. After this, with the tip of a knife or skewer, prick the meat thoroughly. Take some commonly used spices like curds, coriander seeds, garlic and onions, and a small quantity of black pepper, and grind them fine, as is the practice. Then apply the paste on the meat. Wrap a twine around it and put it in a large copper vessel, lighting a slow fire under it. When it is cooked, remove it from the stove and add some saffron with a view to fragrance and colour. And (now) eat it!

A second type is fish kabıb, and this is how it prepared. Take minced meat and grind it very fine. For every ser (two pounds) of meat (add) a quarter ser of cream; and besan, i.e., flour Folio 26, verso made of roasted and husked gram and poppy seeds one cha­ınk each; and a bit of ginger juice. Black pepper and onions and so forth and other customary spices should be all ground and mixed together. Now shape this (mixture) into round flat discs, i.e., tikki. Pour ghee into a mıhğ tawa or a pot and fry the kabıbs, frequently turning them over. After it is cooked, add a little saffron for fragrance and colour. And eat it!

The third is kofta kabıb, and this is how it is prepared. Mince the meat very fine. Take spices like those mentioned above, for example, curds, onions, coriander seeds and poppy seeds, and mix them all together. Then shape the meat into flat discs or round, like a ball. Some more curds again should be rubbed on top and fry the kofta in ghee. Now eat it.

The fourth is pasanda kabıb. And this is how it is. Take pieces of meat cut five or six fingers long and three or four fingers wide. Then prick the pieces thoroughly. For each ser of meat add a quarter ser cream, coriander seeds, gram flour, cloves and garlic, etc., and other spices are all ground together. Then apply this paste on the above-mentioned pieces of meat. Place the meat in a copper dish. In order to make the kabıbs fragrant, put some hot coals in between the two dishes, close to the pieces of meat. Pour a little ghee, drop by drop, on the burning coals. Folio 27, recto When the meat is smoked and the coals have died, transfer the meat to iron skewers and roast on a coal fire. While roasting put tiny drops of ghee on the meat. When the ghee is fully absorbed, and the kabıb is well done, take it off the skewer. Stuff the hole in the kabıb made by the skewer with finely ground white cardamom and black pepper. After this, eat it.

The fifth is shımin kabıb, and it is prepared in the following way. Mince the meat. Put a small quantity of gram pulse in some water and boil. When it is soft, mix it with the meat, add cream and the usual spices. Finely grind the mixture and shape into flat discs. Place these in a large copper vessel and properly seal the mouth of the vessel with dough so that no steam can escape. Then cook on a coal fire. Afterwards, transfer it to another vessel and add some cream, rose water, white cardamom and black pepper. Add some gravy according to taste. It is ready to eat.

The sixth is gğlınğ kabıb and the method of cooking it is this. Take meat from the shoulder of a goat and prick it thoroughly. Add figs, ginger and curds in proper proportions. Roast it on a skewer. Prepare gravy from five sers of meat Folio 27, verso separately. Add a quarter ser cream to the gravy, mix it well and drain it through a piece of cotton cloth. Also add white cardamoms and cloves to the gravy. Now put the above-mentioned kabıbs in the gravy too. Add a little saffron for fragrance.

Seventh is chicken kabıb, and this is how it is cooked. First, slaughter the chicken according to the prescribed ritual. Then remove the skin and feathers and clean out the stomach. The inside is then stuffed with spices. Cook it the same way as the dampu²ht kabıb I have described earlier. This is called mur°h kabıb.

The eighth is shahpasand kabıb, and its method is this. Mince the meat fine. Take the whites of twenty eggs for each ser of meat. Grind and mix black pepper, salt and onions in adequate proportions. Add the egg whites to the meat. Add ginger, and flour of roasted husked gram, ground very fine. Shape the meat into flat discs and fry in ghee. And then eat it!

And if meat is prepared this way, but shaped into balls and some dried fruits stuck on the kabıbs, they are called bandhnu kabıb; and this is the ninth variety.

If the meat is ground extremely fine and shaped into balls, and inside each ball an egg yolk is placed and then fried in the manner described above, this variety of kabıb is called baizah kabıb.

And kabıb-i-mahi is prepared this way. Folio 28, recto Deboned fish meat is boiled along with a little quantity of gram pulse. After this, cream, equal in weight to this mixture is added. Other spices which have been mentioned above are added and everything is finely ground. The paste is stuck on skewers and roasted on a coal fire. Ghee, in which onions have been sautéed, is dropped little by little on the kabıbs while they are being roasted.

There are numerous other varieties, like kabıb-i-husaini and biranji kabıb and miyına paz kabıb and moti kabıb, etc., but this book does not have the capacity to describe each and every kabıb in detail. And these varieties of kabıbs (i.e., those which have been described above) are prepared by the trained cooks of wealthy people and are not sold in the market.

And that which is sold in the market is the following. Cow or goat meat is chopped and red chilies and salt added. The paste then stuck on iron skewers and roasted. Then sold. From one ser of meat they prepare 150 kabıbs. And kabıb made from cow meat is sold at fifty pieces for one anna and goat meat kabıb is sold at the rate of thirty pieces per anna. These cooks are of the Muslim community. Their dress and marriage ceremonies are like other inhabitants of this country. Production (of kabıbs) depends on the demand.

Folio 29, recto, PAINTING OF KAB¸B MAKER

Folio 30, recto, DRAWING OF KAB¸B MAKER'S TOOLS


Folio 31, recto

ABOUT GOLDSMITHS AND THEIR TOOLS AND NAMES OF SOME ORNAMENTS

Goldsmiths are a community who sit in their shops and make gold and silver jewellery in the following manner. First they light a fire in an earthen stove; then a little saltpeter or borax is mixed with gold or silver and (the metal) wrapped in white clay is put in the fire and wood fuel is heaped on top. They blow on it with a phunknğ, i.e., a blowpipe made of bronze or iron. And melt it well. Then they take it out, put it on a molding box and stretch it into a long rod; then with iron calipers, cut off a desired length needed for a particular piece of jewellery. The piece of gold or silver is then put on an iron anvil and beat with an iron hammer, which has a wooden handle. With the other tools mentioned below, depending on the requirements, each tool is put to use and the piece of jewellery is made into the desired shape.

On account of the extensive varieties of tools and innumerable types of jewellery, and the weights used for weighing them, it is not possible in this book to give details of all. But the names of some pieces of jewellery, which are worn in these parts and are fashionable, and the names of weights and tools which are indispensable for goldsmiths, and are known to them by these very names, are given below this illustration. Folio 31, verso And some may use other instruments too.

Those goldsmiths who craft jewellery plus other things like pındın and small boxes, etc., very neatly and attractively, are called sıdahkır. Goldsmiths are Hindus while sıdahkırs are generally Muslims. And among the various types of jewellery, some are typically Muslims, some typically Hindu, some common to both communities. And jewellery is of two types: the first type is plain and that is crafted by goldsmiths. The second is set or studded with precious stones like agate, emeralds, corals, diamonds, pearls, rubies, sapphires, topaz, cat's eye, etc.

First, they prepare a frame for crafting an angĜ­hğ or ırsğ or dhukdhukğ or any other jewellery they want to make. In that frame, they pour a little lac and on it they stick the gem or jewel they want. Around the gem they stick kundan, i.e., a gold foil of the first quality.

The making charges for a silver karı and hanslğ are a quarter anna per tolı. And for a gold karı and hanslğ, two annas per tolı. For a silver ırsğ and challah and pahunchi and bazuband and tavğz, etc., one anna to two annas per tolı Folio 32, recto and for the same ornaments in gold it is four to six annas per tolı. The wages for pasting kundan are fixed at three rupees per tolı.

For making joints in silver ornaments, they add sulphurate of zinc in the following proportions. Three mıshı per tolı of silver. And in gold ornaments, four rattğs of copper per tolı of gold. And this is called ­ıñka. Joints are made in ornaments with ­ıñka or borax and salt. In some varieties of ornaments there are fewer ­ıñka and in some more. And these ­ıñka reduce the value of the goods. When needed, these ­ıñka are dissolved with saltpeter and the metal is made pure.


NAMES OF ORNAMENTS

jhınjan, naugirğ, barah (sic), chhannğ

pachhallğ, İahİahğ, mundrğ, kinkğ

bichhuvı-va-anva­, chhallah, kaĊah, toĊah

angushtarğ, channğ, ırsğ, angushtınah

Folio 32, verso

bınk, porvı, pahunchğ, kangan

ta‘vğz bızĜ, jaushan, nauratan, naunagı

bızĜ band, pachlarğ, dhukdhukğ, hanslğ

baddhğ, zanjğr, ċamı’il, benğ

bılğ, bılı, bundah, jhĜmak

karan phĜl, cho­ğ, chınd, ­ğkı

nath, bulıq, la­kan, ghungharĜ

chandanhır, hırmotğlaĊğ, zanjğrmotğchĜr, kan­hmılı

hır, champıkalğ, jugnĜ, satlaĊah


NAMES OF TOOLS USED BY GOLDSMITHS

iron rezah, nihı’ğ, hathoĊah (big & small)

dastpanah, sanİsğ, jantarğ, kın­ah (big & small)

Folio 33, recto

­happı (big & small), sohan (big & small), earthen kunİah

phunknı bharat, pısı bharat, earthen angğ­hğn, sandın, (big & small)

chhenğ (big & small), kĜchğ, pot

shı²h, earthen khariyı, mğzan-i-sang i.e.,darıbğ


NAMES OF WEIGHTS

ek rattğ, do rattğ, chhır rattğ, ek mıshah,

do mıshah, chhır mıshah, shash mıshah, ek tolı,

do tole, seh tole, panj tole, biranj


End of the Description of Weights: Because in this book we have mentioned obsolete weights and measures, it is necessary to mention the weights i.e., bı­ which are current now.

Folio 33, verso

Therefore rattğ means one surkh which in Hindi they call ghungchğ and it is equivalent in weight to approximately 8 biranj, and a biranj is equal in weight to 8 grains of poppy seed (khashkhısh). And 8 ghungchğ are approximately equal to one mıshı. And 12 mıshı is equal to one tolı. And from the last couple of years the weight of a ser in the city is 9 tolı and 7.5 mıshı. And these weights are used only for weighing gold and silver. And for weighing medicines a different ser is used.


God is the Best Knower of Authenticated and True Things


Folio 34, recto, PAINTING OF A GOLDSMITH

Folio 35, recto, DRAWING OF TOOLS OF GOLDSMITH

Folio 35, verso, DRAWING OF TOOLS OF GOLDSMITH

 


Notes


[1] The cover of the binding carries the title Kitıb-i-ta¬ıvğr-shğshagarın Va°hairah va Bayın-i-ılıt-i-ınhı (The Illustrated Book About Makers of Glassware, etc. and a Description of Their Tools).