Diversity in the Stacks aims to build library collections that represent and reflect the University’s diverse population.
There are multiple ways to investigate the concept of “ethnicity” in the ancient world. The first is to examine how (or whether) ancient cultures thought about ethnicity or race. Scholars generally concur that Greek and Roman cultures did not think in terms of race and ethnicity: the ancients may have thought more in terms of borders, conquests and alliances, language, and communication. Ancient Greeks and Romans seem to have thought in terms of us and them, whether “them” might be “not-Greek,” “not-Athenian,” or “not-Roman.”
This question of how the ancient people thought in terms of their own cultural or military superiority — who did or didn’t qualify as a citizen — has sparked scholarly controversy over multiple decades. In Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, Sinologist and linguist Martin Bernal initiated a fraught (and ongoing) scholarly conversation about the African influences on ancient Greek culture and language.
This conversation was long overdue. As the Society for Classical Studies recently noted, there had been a centuries-long effort among many European scholars to read or interpret ancient texts, cultural artifacts, and extant evidence so as to support “the misleadingly reductive notion of a ‘Western Civilization’ resulting from an allegedly linear transfer of knowledge from Greece to Rome to Western Europe; [and] the whitewashing of ancient Mediterranean culture.” Moreover, some of these scholars manipulated historiography to justify European and Euro-American slavery, imperialism, and colonial subjugation.
Historically, this scholarly manipulation of history has affected ideas of what “counts” as the ancient world (including Greece and Rome, excluding Persia, India, China, and Meso- American cultures), of the meaning of Western civilization, and of whom inherits the intellectual legacy of the Classical world.
Not uncommonly, professional fields and institutions have marginalized voices of scholars who fell outside of a white European hegemonic view (among other ways, by imposing structural limitations on opportunities for education and academic participation). Until recently, this has prevented a diversity of voices and perspectives from enriching scholarly interpretation and approaches.
Indeed, Bernal notes in his first volume that he worked on his project for eight years before discovering the work of African and African-American scholars and writers who had pursued an historical trajectory similar to his. Notably, Bernal mentions Senegalese scholar and trained Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop (1923-1986).
Diop first presented his findings at the Congress of Black Writers and Artists in 1956. His publication, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality (1974; 1989), is an authorized English translation derived from selections from two of his earlier studies, which appeared in French, Nations negres et culture (1954) and Anteriorite des civilisations negres: mythe ou verite historique? (1967).
Bernal also cites Guyanese-American writer, George M. James (1893-1956) — author of the 1954 publication on the Egyptian origin of western philosophy, Stolen Legacy — as well as Caribbean-American scholar Yosef Ben-Jochannan (1918-2015), who wrote, Africa: Mother of Western Civilization (1971).
Both men’s life-long scholarly projects were to raise the self-esteem and self-perception of African Americans. Ben-Jochannan, in fact, hosted tours to Egypt with this express purpose. In one interview, Ben-Jochannan explained that he “wanted people to see their faces were the same” as those represented by ancient Egyptian statues and hieroglyphs. (For a recorded interview with Ben-Jochannan, visit the History Makers database.). James, meanwhile, stated that his motivation was to
bring this information to the attention of the world, so that on the one hand, all races and creeds might know the truth and free themselves from those prejudices which have corrupted human relations; and on the other hand, that the people of African origin might be emancipated from their serfdom of inferiority complex, and enter upon a new era of freedom, in which they would feel like free men, with full human rights and privileges. (James 1954; 2018 “Aims of the Book”).
The views of these earlier writers resonate with what Bernal termed a “revised ancient model” which recognizes the significance of Egyptian influence on Greek culture. In Black Athena, he writes,
An even more powerful inhibitory factor to the restoration of the Egyptian aspect of the Ancient Model has been the fact that, unlike the champions of the Phoenicians, these black scholars have been outside academia. Thus, most of the writing on what G.G.M. James called the Stolen Legacy—Egyptian cultural achievements stolen by the Greeks—has been circulated among friends or published in very small editions; rapidly sold out to a passionately concerned public, but not considered as scholarship by academics, and not even stocked by libraries. (Bernal 429)
Over the two decades it took to complete Black Athena, Bernal was kept busy responding to the many reviews, articles, and monographs that engaged both negatively and positively with his work (Bernal 2001). If one of his goals was to disrupt and create discomfort for the long Eurocentric field of study, he succeeded.
Despite the academic controversy around Bernal’s actual scholarship (see especially, Lefkowitz’s Not out of Africa and Black Athena Revisited), the debates with his critics force contemporary scholars to examine the attitudes and conversations of a singular Western culture outside of the Classical realm. Ancient history has been employed by writers across languages and cultures to express and enforce colonial authority while perpetuating injustice against and oppression of minority groups, those of African descent in particular (see Wiesen 1980, Richard 2009, Harrington 2008.)
But this wasn’t the full story. Long before Bernal’s seminal work, scholars in different disciplines discussed and readapted the Euro-centric ancient model in order to challenge colonial foundations and draw upon the original literary motifs of resistance and liberation. For example, W.E.B. Du Bois’s first novel, The Quest of the Silver Fleece (1911, 2007), draws themes and motifs from the ancient Greek tale of Jason’s quest for the golden fleece. In this contemporary novel, however, “the silver fleece” is cotton, and DuBois’ tale is one of economic subjugation rather than heroic exploit.
Decades later Toni Morrison, in her novel Beloved (1987), evokes the tragic character of Euripides’ Medea, molding the classical piece to touch on the complexities and struggles of freedom for formerly enslaved Americans.
The adaptation of Classical characters, themes, and storylines is likewise present in works such as Derek Walcott’s Omeros (1990) (the Odyssey), Ishmael Reed’s The Last Days of Louisiana Red (1974) (Oedipus), Jessie Fauset’s The Chinaberry Tree: A Novel of American Life (1954) (Greek Tragedy broadly), and others. The reappropriated dramatic elements transcend the boundaries of culture, as they represent the essential experience of being human.
Bernal’s scholarship remains controversial to this day. Some of the texts listed below build on Bernal’s findings, and others continue to argue with his conclusions. Undeniably, Bernal brought earlier scholarship from marginalized voices to the attention of the academic establishment. Today, the scholarship and the teaching of ancient history and literature clearly reflects a move away from the Eurocentric approach which Bernal problematized.
A Selection Scholars and Scholarship
Asante, Molefi K., and Marie-Josée Cérol. Egypt Vs. Greece and the American Academy, 2002.
Ben Jochannan, Yosef. See the books available through the libraries by Dr. Ben-Jochannan
Bernal, Martin. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization Volume I (1987): The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785-1985; Volume II (1991): The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence; Volume III (2006): The Linguistic Evidence.
Bernal, Martin, and David Chioni Moore. Black Athena Writes Back : Martin Bernal Responds to His Critics, 2001.
Diop, Cheikh Anta. The African Origin of Civilization: Myth Or Reality, 1974.
Derks, Ton, and Nico Roymans. Ethnic Constructs In Antiquity: the Role of Power and Tradition, 2008.
Hall, Edith. Inventing the Barbarian: Greek Self-definition Through Tragedy, 1989
Hall, Jonathan. Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity, 1997.
Harrison, Thomas, ed. Greeks and Barbarians, 2002.
Isaac, Benjamin H. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity, 2004
James, George G. M. Stolen Legacy: The Egyptian Origins of Western Philosophy, 2010
Kim, Hyun Jin. Ethnicity and Foreigners in Ancient Greece and China, 2009
Lefkowitz, Mary and Guy MacLean Rogers. Black Athena Revisited.
Malamud, Margaret. African Americans and the Classics: Antiquity, Abolition and Activism, 2016.
Malkin, Irad., ed. Ancient Perceptions of Greek Ethnicity, 2001
McCoskey, Denise. Race: Antiquity and Its Legacy, 2012
McInerney, Jeremy. A Companion to Ethnicity In the Ancient Mediterranean, 2014
Shavit, Jacob. History in Black: African-Americans in Search of an Ancient Past, 2001.
Snowden, Frank M. Blacks in Antiquity; Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience, 1970 and Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks, 1983.
Yamauchi, Edwin M. Africa and Africans In Antiquity, 2001.
Rewriting for Today’s World
Cook, William W., and James Tatum. African American Writers and Classical Tradition, 2010
Cullen, Countee. “From the Medea,” in On These I Stand: An Anthology of the Best Poems of Coutnee Cullen, 1947.
Dove, Rita. The Darker Face of the Earth, 2002
Goff, Barbara E., and Michael Simpson. Crossroads in the Black Aegean: Oedipus, Antigone, and Dramas of the African Diaspora, 2007
Greenwood, Emily. Afro-Greeks: Dialogues between Anglophone Caribbean Literature and Classics in the Twentieth Century, 2010
Hardwick, Lorna, and Carol Gillespie. Classics in Post-Colonial Worlds, 2007
McConnell, Justine. Black Odysseys: The Homeric Odyssey In the African Diaspora Since 1939, 2013
Morrison, Toni. Beloved, 1987
Rankine, Patrice D. Ulysses in Black: Ralph Ellison, Classicism, and African American Literature, 2006
Reed, Ishmael. The Last Days of Louisiana Red, 1974.
Soyinka, Wole. The Bacchae of Euripides: A Communion Rite 1973
Weyenberg, A. van. The Politics of Adaptation: Contemporary African Drama and Greek Tragedy, 2013
Walcott, Derek. Omeros, 1990