The Illustrated Book, 1780-1830:

Main content

The Illustrated Book, 1780-1830:

Selected from the Collection of Harris N. Hollin

Architecture

Architecture

Comic and Caricature

Comic and Caricature

Costumes and Portraits

Costumes and Portraits

Military

Military

Natural History

Natural History

Travel

Travel

Views

Views

color illustration of a Black-Winged Parakeet eating cherries

Pierre Brown, Nouvelles illustrations de zoologie
(London 1776)
Plate VIII

Introduction

Today, when we look at a photograph, we hardly ever think of what it was like before photography. Then, artists would travel far and wide to capture views of distant places, strange plants, animals, peoples, and structures. Engraved onto plates, these could be reproduced by printing for a wider audience. With the introduction of hand coloring of these plates before they were bound into books, a wonderful new sense of realism was added.

Collecting books with hand-colored plates is something I have been doing for only the last eight years. It is an engaging pursuit for many reasons. Depending upon other demands on my time, I can work on it daily or leave it alone for weeks. It is different from anything else I do or have done. The books are works of art from many points of view, not the least of which is the fine artwork they contain, the bindings, the texts, the paper and the printing. Besides being beautiful, they are nice to hold and touch and are also very interesting. The books provide a glimpse of the brief period of the hand-colored plate book.

They cover a wide range of subjects, from the comic, to travel, views, birds, flowers and architecture. They brought faraway places and previously unseen animals and other creatures from distant lands, into the homes of the viewers. Color plate books, as they are often called, educated, entertained and satisfied the ego of the owner.

As I became more familiar with the books I noticed that the same "participants" were often involved. "Participants" include artists, engravers, authors, publishers, printers, colorists, bookbinders, papermakers and, often, subscribers. As I learn more about them from my reference books and their often cordial relationships with one another, I feel I've entered their company. Names such as Ackermann, Rowlandson, Combe, Pyne, Daniell, Havell, Alken, Pugin and many others keep repeating. In many ways it is a static hobby because all of the participants are long gone. The period which was the heyday of this art form was relatively short, with most of the work being done between 1780 and 1830. This brief period of fifty years saw many changes in the world, especially Europe. Empires were gained or lost. The first beginning of an industrial society were taking place and the development of a middle class was starting.

It is thought-provoking to consider the many people who have held, read, and looked at these books in the two hundred years or so, before they came to me. What were the fortunes or misfortunes that caused the collecting and dispersal of these books?

Of course, the people who are still here are other collectors, dealers, auctioneers, and, thankfully, librarians. Most of these books were made in England and France. The text of many English books is in both English and French, though this market was lost to the French Revolution and devastated the English publishers.

In my travels, I enjoy visiting antiquarian book dealers. There are not many experts in this segment of book collecting, but the dealers are always generous with their time and, occasionally, will have something of interest to me. Since I prefer to collect first editions in very good condition, the available choices are often very limited. Auctions represent the best single source of new acquisitions. It is pleasant to preview the books going on sale and to bid on them. I'm surprised at the self control I've developed. After determining what an offering is worth to me, I will go to that maximum. But if the bidding passes me I'm almost nonchalant about it.

People often ask how I came to collecting. While it was almost by accident, through the interest of a late longtime English friend, I can't think of anything that would be more suitable for me. Joss Smith, born in South Africa, emigrated to England more than fifty years ago. We became friends more than forty years ago. After he retired he traveled to the shows in which his wife, Pauline Peretz, a well-known dealer in antique Sterling silver, was exhibiting. He began taking "plates" from books and framing them beautifully. These he would show alongside the silver and sell. Seeing these at her shows was my first exposure to the world of color plates. It was as a result of this exposure that I decided to begin collecting them but only as complete books. Often, when enjoying my books, I think of Joss and Pauline, also now deceased, and this gives my collecting a special meaning.

This exhibit, from my collection, will give others an opportunity to share these wonderful treasures. It is arranged by subject. In "Travel and Views" you will see Mayer's Views of Palestine, Daniell's A Voyage to India by way of China and a fascinating plate depicting a Russian bath from Charles Comte de Rechberg's Les Peuples de la Russie. You will also see an unusual fold-out color plate of Dublin in 1805 in Carr's A Stranger in Ireland. In "Architecture" you will see a selection from Pyne's A History of the Royal Residences and Combe's A History of Westminster Abbey.

"Natural History" combines birds, botany and insects, showing exquisite colored copper plate engravings by Donovan over 200 years ago. Also displayed are bird drawings by Lewin and Lesson. Altogether, more than forty plates are shown. You will also be able to read excerpts from the texts which are courtly, gracious, often funny, and descriptive of the people and the times.

I am certain that you will come away from the exhibit impressed by the art of the illustrators and thankful to the collectors who have preserved these books. I hope you will also wish that space would have allowed more to be displayed. Lastly, I hope you get the same sense of pleasure that I do from this glimpse of a period not really so long ago, but so vastly different from today.

Harris Hollin
June 29, 1996

Costumes and Portraits

The waning years of the 18th century brought with them the rise of English Romanticism, which had a direct and lasting impact on illustrated books. The ahistorical tendencies of Classicism gave way to the historical sensitivity and picturesque sensibility of Romanticism. The Romantic concern with historical accuracy and historical discovery is clearly evidenced in three important works. In his masterwork, Selection of the Ancient Costume of Great Britain and Ireland (1814, Fig. 4), Charles Hamilton Smith sought to show that adherence "to the costume of the times represented [would] augment the illusion and assist to explain the meaning." His contemporary, the noted scholar and collector of armor Samuel Rush Meyrick, did for armor what Smith and others had done for ancient and traditional costume. In Critical Enquiry into Antient Armour (1824) he sought to provide a "chronology of Costume with respect to antient arms and armour which has hitherto been so imperfectly regarded alike by writers, painters, and dramatists of modern times." In The Costume of Great Britain (1808, Fig. 3) W. H. Pyne combined costume painting with the tradition of narrative painting, providing scenes of everyday life, which, like "The Lamp Lighter," were washed in realistic hues.

The spirit of discovery extended beyond the past. Indeed a cosmopolitan thirst for the exotic in other cultures produced an extraordinary flowering of illustrated costume books.  Costume of the Russian Empire (1804, Fig. 2), one of seven in a series issued by the publisher William Miller, is an excellent example of the effort to introduce foreign cultures to an English audience.

Artistic and cultural trends in France moved in a different direction. The French Revolution brought with it the dawn of a new age of Classicism and heroic imagery to France. Guerin and Fiesinger's Portraits de deputies (1791, Fig. 1) one of the more important French portraiture books and an excellent exemplar of this new age. The visage of Luckner seems a remarkable signpost for the tortuous path that lay ahead for France and Europe.

Fig. 1: Twenty-two of the twenty-four plates engraved by Fiesinger from engravings by Guérin after original drawings by Guérin

Fig. 3: Pyne designed and engraved the eighty colored plates. This book was issued in three states, with uncolored backgrounds, with partially colored backgrounds, and, as with this example, with fully colored backgrounds.

Costumes and Portraits

The waning years of the 18th century brought with them the rise of English Romanticism, which had a direct and lasting impact on illustrated books. The ahistorical tendencies of Classicism gave way to the historical sensitivity and picturesque sensibility of Romanticism. The Romantic concern with historical accuracy and historical discovery is clearly evidenced in three important works. In his masterwork, Selection of the Ancient Costume of Great Britain and Ireland (1814, Fig. 4), Charles Hamilton Smith sought to show that adherence "to the costume of the times represented [would] augment the illusion and assist to explain the meaning." His contemporary, the noted scholar and collector of armor Samuel Rush Meyrick, did for armor what Smith and others had done for ancient and traditional costume. In Critical Enquiry into Antient Armour (1824) he sought to provide a "chronology of Costume with respect to antient arms and armour which has hitherto been so imperfectly regarded alike by writers, painters, and dramatists of modern times." In The Costume of Great Britain (1808, Fig. 3) W. H. Pyne combined costume painting with the tradition of narrative painting, providing scenes of everyday life, which, like "The Lamp Lighter," were washed in realistic hues.

The spirit of discovery extended beyond the past. Indeed a cosmopolitan thirst for the exotic in other cultures produced an extraordinary flowering of illustrated costume books.  Costume of the Russian Empire (1804, Fig. 2), one of seven in a series issued by the publisher William Miller, is an excellent example of the effort to introduce foreign cultures to an English audience.

Artistic and cultural trends in France moved in a different direction. The French Revolution brought with it the dawn of a new age of Classicism and heroic imagery to France. Guerin and Fiesinger's Portraits de deputies (1791, Fig. 1) one of the more important French portraiture books and an excellent exemplar of this new age. The visage of Luckner seems a remarkable signpost for the tortuous path that lay ahead for France and Europe.

Fig. 1: Twenty-two of the twenty-four plates engraved by Fiesinger from engravings by Guérin after original drawings by Guérin

Fig. 3: Pyne designed and engraved the eighty colored plates. This book was issued in three states, with uncolored backgrounds, with partially colored backgrounds, and, as with this example, with fully colored backgrounds.

Costumes and Portraits

The waning years of the 18th century brought with them the rise of English Romanticism, which had a direct and lasting impact on illustrated books. The ahistorical tendencies of Classicism gave way to the historical sensitivity and picturesque sensibility of Romanticism. The Romantic concern with historical accuracy and historical discovery is clearly evidenced in three important works. In his masterwork, Selection of the Ancient Costume of Great Britain and Ireland (1814, Fig. 4), Charles Hamilton Smith sought to show that adherence "to the costume of the times represented [would] augment the illusion and assist to explain the meaning." His contemporary, the noted scholar and collector of armor Samuel Rush Meyrick, did for armor what Smith and others had done for ancient and traditional costume. In Critical Enquiry into Antient Armour (1824) he sought to provide a "chronology of Costume with respect to antient arms and armour which has hitherto been so imperfectly regarded alike by writers, painters, and dramatists of modern times." In The Costume of Great Britain (1808, Fig. 3) W. H. Pyne combined costume painting with the tradition of narrative painting, providing scenes of everyday life, which, like "The Lamp Lighter," were washed in realistic hues.

The spirit of discovery extended beyond the past. Indeed a cosmopolitan thirst for the exotic in other cultures produced an extraordinary flowering of illustrated costume books.  Costume of the Russian Empire (1804, Fig. 2), one of seven in a series issued by the publisher William Miller, is an excellent example of the effort to introduce foreign cultures to an English audience.

Artistic and cultural trends in France moved in a different direction. The French Revolution brought with it the dawn of a new age of Classicism and heroic imagery to France. Guerin and Fiesinger's Portraits de deputies (1791, Fig. 1) one of the more important French portraiture books and an excellent exemplar of this new age. The visage of Luckner seems a remarkable signpost for the tortuous path that lay ahead for France and Europe.

Fig. 1: Twenty-two of the twenty-four plates engraved by Fiesinger from engravings by Guérin after original drawings by Guérin

Fig. 3: Pyne designed and engraved the eighty colored plates. This book was issued in three states, with uncolored backgrounds, with partially colored backgrounds, and, as with this example, with fully colored backgrounds.

Costumes and Portraits

The waning years of the 18th century brought with them the rise of English Romanticism, which had a direct and lasting impact on illustrated books. The ahistorical tendencies of Classicism gave way to the historical sensitivity and picturesque sensibility of Romanticism. The Romantic concern with historical accuracy and historical discovery is clearly evidenced in three important works. In his masterwork, Selection of the Ancient Costume of Great Britain and Ireland (1814, Fig. 4), Charles Hamilton Smith sought to show that adherence "to the costume of the times represented [would] augment the illusion and assist to explain the meaning." His contemporary, the noted scholar and collector of armor Samuel Rush Meyrick, did for armor what Smith and others had done for ancient and traditional costume. In Critical Enquiry into Antient Armour (1824) he sought to provide a "chronology of Costume with respect to antient arms and armour which has hitherto been so imperfectly regarded alike by writers, painters, and dramatists of modern times." In The Costume of Great Britain (1808, Fig. 3) W. H. Pyne combined costume painting with the tradition of narrative painting, providing scenes of everyday life, which, like "The Lamp Lighter," were washed in realistic hues.

The spirit of discovery extended beyond the past. Indeed a cosmopolitan thirst for the exotic in other cultures produced an extraordinary flowering of illustrated costume books.  Costume of the Russian Empire (1804, Fig. 2), one of seven in a series issued by the publisher William Miller, is an excellent example of the effort to introduce foreign cultures to an English audience.

Artistic and cultural trends in France moved in a different direction. The French Revolution brought with it the dawn of a new age of Classicism and heroic imagery to France. Guerin and Fiesinger's Portraits de deputies (1791, Fig. 1) one of the more important French portraiture books and an excellent exemplar of this new age. The visage of Luckner seems a remarkable signpost for the tortuous path that lay ahead for France and Europe.

Fig. 1: Twenty-two of the twenty-four plates engraved by Fiesinger from engravings by Guérin after original drawings by Guérin

Fig. 3: Pyne designed and engraved the eighty colored plates. This book was issued in three states, with uncolored backgrounds, with partially colored backgrounds, and, as with this example, with fully colored backgrounds.

Military

The wars of the Napoleonic Era produced a large crop of books. Travel books and narratives with illustrations from a military or naval perspective described countries recently invaded and recounted recent campaigns to a keenly interested public. Two examples of this lucrative side trade in illustrated books are Cooper Willyams' A Voyage up the Mediterranean in H.M.S. Swiftsure (1802) and William Mudford's An Historical Account of the Campaign in the Netherlands in 1815 (1817, Fig. 1). Willyams, who as chaplain aboard the H.M.S. Swiftsure was an eyewitness to the Nile campaign, sought to record "with his pen and pencil the observations and images which obtruded themselves upon him." The scene of the Napoleon's ultimate defeat, Waterloo, became the most painted town in Europe, and the battle and its hero Wellington were accorded a literature all their own. Mudford's contribution is an excellent example, which contains some of the very few aquatints of George Cruikshank. Though only four of the prints were produced by Cruikshank, their wealth of detail and vivid use of color make them stand out from the others, much as his frontispiece seems to jump out from the page. Edward Orme, the publisher best known for his library of Indian books, produced his own fine Waterloo book Historic, Military, and Naval Anecdotes (1819, Fig. 2).

Fig. 1: Thirty-one colored plates. Four of the plates, including the engraved title, were drawn and etched by G. Cruikshank.

 

 

Military

The wars of the Napoleonic Era produced a large crop of books. Travel books and narratives with illustrations from a military or naval perspective described countries recently invaded and recounted recent campaigns to a keenly interested public. Two examples of this lucrative side trade in illustrated books are Cooper Willyams' A Voyage up the Mediterranean in H.M.S. Swiftsure (1802) and William Mudford's An Historical Account of the Campaign in the Netherlands in 1815 (1817, Fig. 1). Willyams, who as chaplain aboard the H.M.S. Swiftsure was an eyewitness to the Nile campaign, sought to record "with his pen and pencil the observations and images which obtruded themselves upon him." The scene of the Napoleon's ultimate defeat, Waterloo, became the most painted town in Europe, and the battle and its hero Wellington were accorded a literature all their own. Mudford's contribution is an excellent example, which contains some of the very few aquatints of George Cruikshank. Though only four of the prints were produced by Cruikshank, their wealth of detail and vivid use of color make them stand out from the others, much as his frontispiece seems to jump out from the page. Edward Orme, the publisher best known for his library of Indian books, produced his own fine Waterloo book Historic, Military, and Naval Anecdotes (1819, Fig. 2).

Fig. 1: Thirty-one colored plates. Four of the plates, including the engraved title, were drawn and etched by G. Cruikshank.

 

 

Comic and Caricature

"I have played the fool," the English illustrator Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) once said, "but here is my resource." His resource was his unequaled skill as a draftsman, which he combined with an acute social sensitivity to provide a panoramic sweep of late Georgian life. In his forte, the caricature, he focused upon the comedy of everyday life, particularly as it befell his principal readers, the well-to-do bourgeoisie. Under the tutelage of the publisher Ackermann, he and the author William Combe produced The Tour of Doctor Syntax, In Search of the Picturesque (Fig. 7, 1812, 3rd edition 1819) and two sequels, constituting the most influential comic series of an era in which the English public held the genre especially dear. The black-coated Doctor, limbs flailing on his awkward horse, started the fashion for aquatint engravings paired with rhyming text and served as a model for emulation and parody. Rowlandson himself imitated his creation first in 1815 in The Adventures of Doctor Comicus or The Frolicks of Fortune (Fig. 6,) later in Doctor Syntax in Paris or a Tour in Search of the Grotesque (1820), The Tour of Doctor Syntax through London, or the Pleasures and Miseries of the Metropolis (1820), The History of Johnny Quae Genus (1822, Fig. 4) and The Military Adventures of Johnny Newcombe (1818, Fig. 5.)  In The English Dance of Death (1815, Fig 3,) Rowlandson demonstrated that he could add a comedic element to the traditional significance of the themethe concept of Death as the great leveler.

In his comic work for Thomas McClean's Repository of Wit and Humour, the renowned sports illustrator Henry Alken employed elements of English elite and popular culture, especially art, sport and song. The satire and social criticism evident in A Touch of the Fine Arts (1824, Fig. 1,) Illustrations of Popular Songs (1826, Fig. 2,) Shakespeare's Seven Ages of Man (1824) provide a distinctive contrast to the more strictly picturesque and comedic qualities of Rowlandson's caricatures.

Fig. 6: This is the first of many imitations by Thomas Rowlandson of Doctor Snytax

Comic and Caricature

"I have played the fool," the English illustrator Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) once said, "but here is my resource." His resource was his unequaled skill as a draftsman, which he combined with an acute social sensitivity to provide a panoramic sweep of late Georgian life. In his forte, the caricature, he focused upon the comedy of everyday life, particularly as it befell his principal readers, the well-to-do bourgeoisie. Under the tutelage of the publisher Ackermann, he and the author William Combe produced The Tour of Doctor Syntax, In Search of the Picturesque (Fig. 7, 1812, 3rd edition 1819) and two sequels, constituting the most influential comic series of an era in which the English public held the genre especially dear. The black-coated Doctor, limbs flailing on his awkward horse, started the fashion for aquatint engravings paired with rhyming text and served as a model for emulation and parody. Rowlandson himself imitated his creation first in 1815 in The Adventures of Doctor Comicus or The Frolicks of Fortune (Fig. 6,) later in Doctor Syntax in Paris or a Tour in Search of the Grotesque (1820), The Tour of Doctor Syntax through London, or the Pleasures and Miseries of the Metropolis (1820), The History of Johnny Quae Genus (1822, Fig. 4) and The Military Adventures of Johnny Newcombe (1818, Fig. 5.)  In The English Dance of Death (1815, Fig 3,) Rowlandson demonstrated that he could add a comedic element to the traditional significance of the themethe concept of Death as the great leveler.

In his comic work for Thomas McClean's Repository of Wit and Humour, the renowned sports illustrator Henry Alken employed elements of English elite and popular culture, especially art, sport and song. The satire and social criticism evident in A Touch of the Fine Arts (1824, Fig. 1,) Illustrations of Popular Songs (1826, Fig. 2,) Shakespeare's Seven Ages of Man (1824) provide a distinctive contrast to the more strictly picturesque and comedic qualities of Rowlandson's caricatures.

Fig. 6: This is the first of many imitations by Thomas Rowlandson of Doctor Snytax

Comic and Caricature

"I have played the fool," the English illustrator Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) once said, "but here is my resource." His resource was his unequaled skill as a draftsman, which he combined with an acute social sensitivity to provide a panoramic sweep of late Georgian life. In his forte, the caricature, he focused upon the comedy of everyday life, particularly as it befell his principal readers, the well-to-do bourgeoisie. Under the tutelage of the publisher Ackermann, he and the author William Combe produced The Tour of Doctor Syntax, In Search of the Picturesque (Fig. 7, 1812, 3rd edition 1819) and two sequels, constituting the most influential comic series of an era in which the English public held the genre especially dear. The black-coated Doctor, limbs flailing on his awkward horse, started the fashion for aquatint engravings paired with rhyming text and served as a model for emulation and parody. Rowlandson himself imitated his creation first in 1815 in The Adventures of Doctor Comicus or The Frolicks of Fortune (Fig. 6,) later in Doctor Syntax in Paris or a Tour in Search of the Grotesque (1820), The Tour of Doctor Syntax through London, or the Pleasures and Miseries of the Metropolis (1820), The History of Johnny Quae Genus (1822, Fig. 4) and The Military Adventures of Johnny Newcombe (1818, Fig. 5.)  In The English Dance of Death (1815, Fig 3,) Rowlandson demonstrated that he could add a comedic element to the traditional significance of the themethe concept of Death as the great leveler.

In his comic work for Thomas McClean's Repository of Wit and Humour, the renowned sports illustrator Henry Alken employed elements of English elite and popular culture, especially art, sport and song. The satire and social criticism evident in A Touch of the Fine Arts (1824, Fig. 1,) Illustrations of Popular Songs (1826, Fig. 2,) Shakespeare's Seven Ages of Man (1824) provide a distinctive contrast to the more strictly picturesque and comedic qualities of Rowlandson's caricatures.

Fig. 6: This is the first of many imitations by Thomas Rowlandson of Doctor Snytax

Comic and Caricature

"I have played the fool," the English illustrator Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) once said, "but here is my resource." His resource was his unequaled skill as a draftsman, which he combined with an acute social sensitivity to provide a panoramic sweep of late Georgian life. In his forte, the caricature, he focused upon the comedy of everyday life, particularly as it befell his principal readers, the well-to-do bourgeoisie. Under the tutelage of the publisher Ackermann, he and the author William Combe produced The Tour of Doctor Syntax, In Search of the Picturesque (Fig. 7, 1812, 3rd edition 1819) and two sequels, constituting the most influential comic series of an era in which the English public held the genre especially dear. The black-coated Doctor, limbs flailing on his awkward horse, started the fashion for aquatint engravings paired with rhyming text and served as a model for emulation and parody. Rowlandson himself imitated his creation first in 1815 in The Adventures of Doctor Comicus or The Frolicks of Fortune (Fig. 6,) later in Doctor Syntax in Paris or a Tour in Search of the Grotesque (1820), The Tour of Doctor Syntax through London, or the Pleasures and Miseries of the Metropolis (1820), The History of Johnny Quae Genus (1822, Fig. 4) and The Military Adventures of Johnny Newcombe (1818, Fig. 5.)  In The English Dance of Death (1815, Fig 3,) Rowlandson demonstrated that he could add a comedic element to the traditional significance of the themethe concept of Death as the great leveler.

In his comic work for Thomas McClean's Repository of Wit and Humour, the renowned sports illustrator Henry Alken employed elements of English elite and popular culture, especially art, sport and song. The satire and social criticism evident in A Touch of the Fine Arts (1824, Fig. 1,) Illustrations of Popular Songs (1826, Fig. 2,) Shakespeare's Seven Ages of Man (1824) provide a distinctive contrast to the more strictly picturesque and comedic qualities of Rowlandson's caricatures.

Fig. 6: This is the first of many imitations by Thomas Rowlandson of Doctor Snytax

Comic and Caricature

"I have played the fool," the English illustrator Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) once said, "but here is my resource." His resource was his unequaled skill as a draftsman, which he combined with an acute social sensitivity to provide a panoramic sweep of late Georgian life. In his forte, the caricature, he focused upon the comedy of everyday life, particularly as it befell his principal readers, the well-to-do bourgeoisie. Under the tutelage of the publisher Ackermann, he and the author William Combe produced The Tour of Doctor Syntax, In Search of the Picturesque (Fig. 7, 1812, 3rd edition 1819) and two sequels, constituting the most influential comic series of an era in which the English public held the genre especially dear. The black-coated Doctor, limbs flailing on his awkward horse, started the fashion for aquatint engravings paired with rhyming text and served as a model for emulation and parody. Rowlandson himself imitated his creation first in 1815 in The Adventures of Doctor Comicus or The Frolicks of Fortune (Fig. 6,) later in Doctor Syntax in Paris or a Tour in Search of the Grotesque (1820), The Tour of Doctor Syntax through London, or the Pleasures and Miseries of the Metropolis (1820), The History of Johnny Quae Genus (1822, Fig. 4) and The Military Adventures of Johnny Newcombe (1818, Fig. 5.)  In The English Dance of Death (1815, Fig 3,) Rowlandson demonstrated that he could add a comedic element to the traditional significance of the themethe concept of Death as the great leveler.

In his comic work for Thomas McClean's Repository of Wit and Humour, the renowned sports illustrator Henry Alken employed elements of English elite and popular culture, especially art, sport and song. The satire and social criticism evident in A Touch of the Fine Arts (1824, Fig. 1,) Illustrations of Popular Songs (1826, Fig. 2,) Shakespeare's Seven Ages of Man (1824) provide a distinctive contrast to the more strictly picturesque and comedic qualities of Rowlandson's caricatures.

Fig. 6: This is the first of many imitations by Thomas Rowlandson of Doctor Snytax

Comic and Caricature

"I have played the fool," the English illustrator Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) once said, "but here is my resource." His resource was his unequaled skill as a draftsman, which he combined with an acute social sensitivity to provide a panoramic sweep of late Georgian life. In his forte, the caricature, he focused upon the comedy of everyday life, particularly as it befell his principal readers, the well-to-do bourgeoisie. Under the tutelage of the publisher Ackermann, he and the author William Combe produced The Tour of Doctor Syntax, In Search of the Picturesque (Fig. 7, 1812, 3rd edition 1819) and two sequels, constituting the most influential comic series of an era in which the English public held the genre especially dear. The black-coated Doctor, limbs flailing on his awkward horse, started the fashion for aquatint engravings paired with rhyming text and served as a model for emulation and parody. Rowlandson himself imitated his creation first in 1815 in The Adventures of Doctor Comicus or The Frolicks of Fortune (Fig. 6,) later in Doctor Syntax in Paris or a Tour in Search of the Grotesque (1820), The Tour of Doctor Syntax through London, or the Pleasures and Miseries of the Metropolis (1820), The History of Johnny Quae Genus (1822, Fig. 4) and The Military Adventures of Johnny Newcombe (1818, Fig. 5.)  In The English Dance of Death (1815, Fig 3,) Rowlandson demonstrated that he could add a comedic element to the traditional significance of the themethe concept of Death as the great leveler.

In his comic work for Thomas McClean's Repository of Wit and Humour, the renowned sports illustrator Henry Alken employed elements of English elite and popular culture, especially art, sport and song. The satire and social criticism evident in A Touch of the Fine Arts (1824, Fig. 1,) Illustrations of Popular Songs (1826, Fig. 2,) Shakespeare's Seven Ages of Man (1824) provide a distinctive contrast to the more strictly picturesque and comedic qualities of Rowlandson's caricatures.

Fig. 6: This is the first of many imitations by Thomas Rowlandson of Doctor Snytax

Comic and Caricature

"I have played the fool," the English illustrator Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) once said, "but here is my resource." His resource was his unequaled skill as a draftsman, which he combined with an acute social sensitivity to provide a panoramic sweep of late Georgian life. In his forte, the caricature, he focused upon the comedy of everyday life, particularly as it befell his principal readers, the well-to-do bourgeoisie. Under the tutelage of the publisher Ackermann, he and the author William Combe produced The Tour of Doctor Syntax, In Search of the Picturesque (Fig. 7, 1812, 3rd edition 1819) and two sequels, constituting the most influential comic series of an era in which the English public held the genre especially dear. The black-coated Doctor, limbs flailing on his awkward horse, started the fashion for aquatint engravings paired with rhyming text and served as a model for emulation and parody. Rowlandson himself imitated his creation first in 1815 in The Adventures of Doctor Comicus or The Frolicks of Fortune (Fig. 6,) later in Doctor Syntax in Paris or a Tour in Search of the Grotesque (1820), The Tour of Doctor Syntax through London, or the Pleasures and Miseries of the Metropolis (1820), The History of Johnny Quae Genus (1822, Fig. 4) and The Military Adventures of Johnny Newcombe (1818, Fig. 5.)  In The English Dance of Death (1815, Fig 3,) Rowlandson demonstrated that he could add a comedic element to the traditional significance of the themethe concept of Death as the great leveler.

In his comic work for Thomas McClean's Repository of Wit and Humour, the renowned sports illustrator Henry Alken employed elements of English elite and popular culture, especially art, sport and song. The satire and social criticism evident in A Touch of the Fine Arts (1824, Fig. 1,) Illustrations of Popular Songs (1826, Fig. 2,) Shakespeare's Seven Ages of Man (1824) provide a distinctive contrast to the more strictly picturesque and comedic qualities of Rowlandson's caricatures.

Fig. 6: This is the first of many imitations by Thomas Rowlandson of Doctor Snytax

Views

In England the heyday of hand-painted color print books coincided with the development of the picturesque style in painting and illustration. Taking landscapes and buildings as its subject matter, the picturesque sought to depict the beauty of variety, according to its foremost proponent the Reverend William Gilpin. The search for the picturesque took many abroad, as it did with John Carr who travelled first to France and then across the Irish Sea for A Stranger in Ireland (1805, Fig. 2.) At the same time, interest in the picturesque manifested itself in areas of more acute local interest to English readers. Theodore H. Fielding and J. Walton provided Ackermann's audience with a magnificent illustrated tour of the English lakes, A Picturesque Tour of the English Lakes (1821, Fig. 3.) Buildings were common subject matter for the picturesque. Indeed, architecture in the late 18th and early 19th centuries enjoyed substantial public consideration. Draughtsmen and engravers were kept busy producing pictorial representations of abbeys, estate and the like to satisfy the public demand for "views." In this genre, too, Ackermann's press on the Strand was well represented. In The History of the Abbey Church of St. Peter's Westminster (1812, Fig. 1,) Ackermann employed a variety of artists used to bring out in the plates the luster of stained glass windows and the "dim religious light" of the chapels. W. H. Pyne concentrated on other national treasures of the English--the royal residences. In his History of the Royal Residences (1819, Fig. 4,) both exterior and interior scenes are featured (the former printed in two colorsblue for the sky and brown for the building and foreground--and the later in one, before being colored by hand) and the extraordinary richness of color lends a majestic effect to the illustrations.

Views

In England the heyday of hand-painted color print books coincided with the development of the picturesque style in painting and illustration. Taking landscapes and buildings as its subject matter, the picturesque sought to depict the beauty of variety, according to its foremost proponent the Reverend William Gilpin. The search for the picturesque took many abroad, as it did with John Carr who travelled first to France and then across the Irish Sea for A Stranger in Ireland (1805, Fig. 2.) At the same time, interest in the picturesque manifested itself in areas of more acute local interest to English readers. Theodore H. Fielding and J. Walton provided Ackermann's audience with a magnificent illustrated tour of the English lakes, A Picturesque Tour of the English Lakes (1821, Fig. 3.) Buildings were common subject matter for the picturesque. Indeed, architecture in the late 18th and early 19th centuries enjoyed substantial public consideration. Draughtsmen and engravers were kept busy producing pictorial representations of abbeys, estate and the like to satisfy the public demand for "views." In this genre, too, Ackermann's press on the Strand was well represented. In The History of the Abbey Church of St. Peter's Westminster (1812, Fig. 1,) Ackermann employed a variety of artists used to bring out in the plates the luster of stained glass windows and the "dim religious light" of the chapels. W. H. Pyne concentrated on other national treasures of the English--the royal residences. In his History of the Royal Residences (1819, Fig. 4,) both exterior and interior scenes are featured (the former printed in two colorsblue for the sky and brown for the building and foreground--and the later in one, before being colored by hand) and the extraordinary richness of color lends a majestic effect to the illustrations.

Views

In England the heyday of hand-painted color print books coincided with the development of the picturesque style in painting and illustration. Taking landscapes and buildings as its subject matter, the picturesque sought to depict the beauty of variety, according to its foremost proponent the Reverend William Gilpin. The search for the picturesque took many abroad, as it did with John Carr who travelled first to France and then across the Irish Sea for A Stranger in Ireland (1805, Fig. 2.) At the same time, interest in the picturesque manifested itself in areas of more acute local interest to English readers. Theodore H. Fielding and J. Walton provided Ackermann's audience with a magnificent illustrated tour of the English lakes, A Picturesque Tour of the English Lakes (1821, Fig. 3.) Buildings were common subject matter for the picturesque. Indeed, architecture in the late 18th and early 19th centuries enjoyed substantial public consideration. Draughtsmen and engravers were kept busy producing pictorial representations of abbeys, estate and the like to satisfy the public demand for "views." In this genre, too, Ackermann's press on the Strand was well represented. In The History of the Abbey Church of St. Peter's Westminster (1812, Fig. 1,) Ackermann employed a variety of artists used to bring out in the plates the luster of stained glass windows and the "dim religious light" of the chapels. W. H. Pyne concentrated on other national treasures of the English--the royal residences. In his History of the Royal Residences (1819, Fig. 4,) both exterior and interior scenes are featured (the former printed in two colorsblue for the sky and brown for the building and foreground--and the later in one, before being colored by hand) and the extraordinary richness of color lends a majestic effect to the illustrations.

Views

In England the heyday of hand-painted color print books coincided with the development of the picturesque style in painting and illustration. Taking landscapes and buildings as its subject matter, the picturesque sought to depict the beauty of variety, according to its foremost proponent the Reverend William Gilpin. The search for the picturesque took many abroad, as it did with John Carr who travelled first to France and then across the Irish Sea for A Stranger in Ireland (1805, Fig. 2.) At the same time, interest in the picturesque manifested itself in areas of more acute local interest to English readers. Theodore H. Fielding and J. Walton provided Ackermann's audience with a magnificent illustrated tour of the English lakes, A Picturesque Tour of the English Lakes (1821, Fig. 3.) Buildings were common subject matter for the picturesque. Indeed, architecture in the late 18th and early 19th centuries enjoyed substantial public consideration. Draughtsmen and engravers were kept busy producing pictorial representations of abbeys, estate and the like to satisfy the public demand for "views." In this genre, too, Ackermann's press on the Strand was well represented. In The History of the Abbey Church of St. Peter's Westminster (1812, Fig. 1,) Ackermann employed a variety of artists used to bring out in the plates the luster of stained glass windows and the "dim religious light" of the chapels. W. H. Pyne concentrated on other national treasures of the English--the royal residences. In his History of the Royal Residences (1819, Fig. 4,) both exterior and interior scenes are featured (the former printed in two colorsblue for the sky and brown for the building and foreground--and the later in one, before being colored by hand) and the extraordinary richness of color lends a majestic effect to the illustrations.

Travel

Two great developments, one artistic and one political, produced a profound impact on illustrated books in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Aquatint, a process first developed in France in 1769, became the favored process of color illustration in books, because it imitated the brushwork obtainable with watercolor, thus allowing the artist, engraver, and publisher to capture the richness of watercolor for a wider audience. The great political development was the period of warfare that convulsed Europe in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. For more than a decade this warfare hemmed in British artists, throwing the image of the outside world into sharper relief and giving these artists a more concentrated vision. Most of those who were able to travel before Napoleon's political demise and the many more who did thereafter made sketches themselves or retained artists to depict what they saw. Later, engravers turned these sketches into plates for illustrated books of travel.

These illustrated travel books are artifacts of the transition of travel from the cultural rite of passage of the English aristocracy into its consumption, in the form of livres deluxes, by an expanding and increasingly affluent bourgeoisie. The market for illustrated travel books--and almost all travel books of the era were illustrated--allowed for the production of sumptuous books in which little expense was spared in the collaborative effort of publisher, artist, and engraver.

The publisher Rudolph Ackerman set the standard in this regard. The work of his London publishing house is represented here by Pavel Svin'in's Sketches of Russia (1814, Fig. 4.) The English public s interest in India during this period grew in proportion to England s involvement in India. Captain Robert Melville Grindley's Scenery, Costumes and Architecture (1826-30, Fig. 2) is one of the most attractive color plate books on India produced, surpassed only by Daniell's A Picturesque Voyage to India (1810, Fig. 5.) Luigi Mayer's Views of Palestine (1804, Fig. 3) presented an English public keenly interested in the Orient with views from another exotic locale. The French too had a taste for exotic scenery, for which Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt and elsewhere provided the fare. Comte Rechberg's Les Peuples de la Russie (1812, Fig. 1) provided the French with views of the Russian people that coincided with the Grande Armee's Russian expedition. 

Travel

Two great developments, one artistic and one political, produced a profound impact on illustrated books in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Aquatint, a process first developed in France in 1769, became the favored process of color illustration in books, because it imitated the brushwork obtainable with watercolor, thus allowing the artist, engraver, and publisher to capture the richness of watercolor for a wider audience. The great political development was the period of warfare that convulsed Europe in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. For more than a decade this warfare hemmed in British artists, throwing the image of the outside world into sharper relief and giving these artists a more concentrated vision. Most of those who were able to travel before Napoleon's political demise and the many more who did thereafter made sketches themselves or retained artists to depict what they saw. Later, engravers turned these sketches into plates for illustrated books of travel.

These illustrated travel books are artifacts of the transition of travel from the cultural rite of passage of the English aristocracy into its consumption, in the form of livres deluxes, by an expanding and increasingly affluent bourgeoisie. The market for illustrated travel books--and almost all travel books of the era were illustrated--allowed for the production of sumptuous books in which little expense was spared in the collaborative effort of publisher, artist, and engraver.

The publisher Rudolph Ackerman set the standard in this regard. The work of his London publishing house is represented here by Pavel Svin'in's Sketches of Russia (1814, Fig. 4.) The English public s interest in India during this period grew in proportion to England s involvement in India. Captain Robert Melville Grindley's Scenery, Costumes and Architecture (1826-30, Fig. 2) is one of the most attractive color plate books on India produced, surpassed only by Daniell's A Picturesque Voyage to India (1810, Fig. 5.) Luigi Mayer's Views of Palestine (1804, Fig. 3) presented an English public keenly interested in the Orient with views from another exotic locale. The French too had a taste for exotic scenery, for which Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt and elsewhere provided the fare. Comte Rechberg's Les Peuples de la Russie (1812, Fig. 1) provided the French with views of the Russian people that coincided with the Grande Armee's Russian expedition. 

Travel

Two great developments, one artistic and one political, produced a profound impact on illustrated books in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Aquatint, a process first developed in France in 1769, became the favored process of color illustration in books, because it imitated the brushwork obtainable with watercolor, thus allowing the artist, engraver, and publisher to capture the richness of watercolor for a wider audience. The great political development was the period of warfare that convulsed Europe in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. For more than a decade this warfare hemmed in British artists, throwing the image of the outside world into sharper relief and giving these artists a more concentrated vision. Most of those who were able to travel before Napoleon's political demise and the many more who did thereafter made sketches themselves or retained artists to depict what they saw. Later, engravers turned these sketches into plates for illustrated books of travel.

These illustrated travel books are artifacts of the transition of travel from the cultural rite of passage of the English aristocracy into its consumption, in the form of livres deluxes, by an expanding and increasingly affluent bourgeoisie. The market for illustrated travel books--and almost all travel books of the era were illustrated--allowed for the production of sumptuous books in which little expense was spared in the collaborative effort of publisher, artist, and engraver.

The publisher Rudolph Ackerman set the standard in this regard. The work of his London publishing house is represented here by Pavel Svin'in's Sketches of Russia (1814, Fig. 4.) The English public s interest in India during this period grew in proportion to England s involvement in India. Captain Robert Melville Grindley's Scenery, Costumes and Architecture (1826-30, Fig. 2) is one of the most attractive color plate books on India produced, surpassed only by Daniell's A Picturesque Voyage to India (1810, Fig. 5.) Luigi Mayer's Views of Palestine (1804, Fig. 3) presented an English public keenly interested in the Orient with views from another exotic locale. The French too had a taste for exotic scenery, for which Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt and elsewhere provided the fare. Comte Rechberg's Les Peuples de la Russie (1812, Fig. 1) provided the French with views of the Russian people that coincided with the Grande Armee's Russian expedition. 

Travel

Two great developments, one artistic and one political, produced a profound impact on illustrated books in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Aquatint, a process first developed in France in 1769, became the favored process of color illustration in books, because it imitated the brushwork obtainable with watercolor, thus allowing the artist, engraver, and publisher to capture the richness of watercolor for a wider audience. The great political development was the period of warfare that convulsed Europe in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. For more than a decade this warfare hemmed in British artists, throwing the image of the outside world into sharper relief and giving these artists a more concentrated vision. Most of those who were able to travel before Napoleon's political demise and the many more who did thereafter made sketches themselves or retained artists to depict what they saw. Later, engravers turned these sketches into plates for illustrated books of travel.

These illustrated travel books are artifacts of the transition of travel from the cultural rite of passage of the English aristocracy into its consumption, in the form of livres deluxes, by an expanding and increasingly affluent bourgeoisie. The market for illustrated travel books--and almost all travel books of the era were illustrated--allowed for the production of sumptuous books in which little expense was spared in the collaborative effort of publisher, artist, and engraver.

The publisher Rudolph Ackerman set the standard in this regard. The work of his London publishing house is represented here by Pavel Svin'in's Sketches of Russia (1814, Fig. 4.) The English public s interest in India during this period grew in proportion to England s involvement in India. Captain Robert Melville Grindley's Scenery, Costumes and Architecture (1826-30, Fig. 2) is one of the most attractive color plate books on India produced, surpassed only by Daniell's A Picturesque Voyage to India (1810, Fig. 5.) Luigi Mayer's Views of Palestine (1804, Fig. 3) presented an English public keenly interested in the Orient with views from another exotic locale. The French too had a taste for exotic scenery, for which Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt and elsewhere provided the fare. Comte Rechberg's Les Peuples de la Russie (1812, Fig. 1) provided the French with views of the Russian people that coincided with the Grande Armee's Russian expedition. 

Travel

Two great developments, one artistic and one political, produced a profound impact on illustrated books in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Aquatint, a process first developed in France in 1769, became the favored process of color illustration in books, because it imitated the brushwork obtainable with watercolor, thus allowing the artist, engraver, and publisher to capture the richness of watercolor for a wider audience. The great political development was the period of warfare that convulsed Europe in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. For more than a decade this warfare hemmed in British artists, throwing the image of the outside world into sharper relief and giving these artists a more concentrated vision. Most of those who were able to travel before Napoleon's political demise and the many more who did thereafter made sketches themselves or retained artists to depict what they saw. Later, engravers turned these sketches into plates for illustrated books of travel.

These illustrated travel books are artifacts of the transition of travel from the cultural rite of passage of the English aristocracy into its consumption, in the form of livres deluxes, by an expanding and increasingly affluent bourgeoisie. The market for illustrated travel books--and almost all travel books of the era were illustrated--allowed for the production of sumptuous books in which little expense was spared in the collaborative effort of publisher, artist, and engraver.

The publisher Rudolph Ackerman set the standard in this regard. The work of his London publishing house is represented here by Pavel Svin'in's Sketches of Russia (1814, Fig. 4.) The English public s interest in India during this period grew in proportion to England s involvement in India. Captain Robert Melville Grindley's Scenery, Costumes and Architecture (1826-30, Fig. 2) is one of the most attractive color plate books on India produced, surpassed only by Daniell's A Picturesque Voyage to India (1810, Fig. 5.) Luigi Mayer's Views of Palestine (1804, Fig. 3) presented an English public keenly interested in the Orient with views from another exotic locale. The French too had a taste for exotic scenery, for which Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt and elsewhere provided the fare. Comte Rechberg's Les Peuples de la Russie (1812, Fig. 1) provided the French with views of the Russian people that coincided with the Grande Armee's Russian expedition. 

Architecture

The golden era of aquatint engraving coincided with an enormous flowering of interest in the outside world, which British artists increasingly viewed as the territory of the exotic. No where was this interest more keenly focused than on Britain's Indian possessions. In A Picturesque Voyage to India (1810, Fig. 2,) Thomas Daniell's second volume of Indian illustrations, the author and illustrator provides a visual attempt to define the inhabitants of Britain's buregeoning Indian possessions. Both the popular reception and the artistic influence of Daniell's effort provide evidence that empire involved mediation--a cultural exchange that, if not equal, was at least two-way. The great garden landscaper and rural enthusiast Humphrey Repton was so impressed with the ornamental details in Daniell's illustrations of Hindu architecture (and the novelty they would afford his designs) that he incorporated them into his Designs for the Pavilion at Brighton (1808, Fig. 3 - Fig. 4.) Repton's long-held interest in rural life reflected a broader interest among English artists. J. B. Papworth, for example, provided a strikingly modern model of rural accommodation in Rural Residences (1832, Fig. 1.) His plan for the Cottage Orne betrays an emphasis on functionality rather than tradition and bears more than a passing similarity to the architecture of Repton's Brighton and Daniell's India.

Architecture

The golden era of aquatint engraving coincided with an enormous flowering of interest in the outside world, which British artists increasingly viewed as the territory of the exotic. No where was this interest more keenly focused than on Britain's Indian possessions. In A Picturesque Voyage to India (1810, Fig. 2,) Thomas Daniell's second volume of Indian illustrations, the author and illustrator provides a visual attempt to define the inhabitants of Britain's buregeoning Indian possessions. Both the popular reception and the artistic influence of Daniell's effort provide evidence that empire involved mediation--a cultural exchange that, if not equal, was at least two-way. The great garden landscaper and rural enthusiast Humphrey Repton was so impressed with the ornamental details in Daniell's illustrations of Hindu architecture (and the novelty they would afford his designs) that he incorporated them into his Designs for the Pavilion at Brighton (1808, Fig. 3 - Fig. 4.) Repton's long-held interest in rural life reflected a broader interest among English artists. J. B. Papworth, for example, provided a strikingly modern model of rural accommodation in Rural Residences (1832, Fig. 1.) His plan for the Cottage Orne betrays an emphasis on functionality rather than tradition and bears more than a passing similarity to the architecture of Repton's Brighton and Daniell's India.

Architecture

The golden era of aquatint engraving coincided with an enormous flowering of interest in the outside world, which British artists increasingly viewed as the territory of the exotic. No where was this interest more keenly focused than on Britain's Indian possessions. In A Picturesque Voyage to India (1810, Fig. 2,) Thomas Daniell's second volume of Indian illustrations, the author and illustrator provides a visual attempt to define the inhabitants of Britain's buregeoning Indian possessions. Both the popular reception and the artistic influence of Daniell's effort provide evidence that empire involved mediation--a cultural exchange that, if not equal, was at least two-way. The great garden landscaper and rural enthusiast Humphrey Repton was so impressed with the ornamental details in Daniell's illustrations of Hindu architecture (and the novelty they would afford his designs) that he incorporated them into his Designs for the Pavilion at Brighton (1808, Fig. 3 - Fig. 4.) Repton's long-held interest in rural life reflected a broader interest among English artists. J. B. Papworth, for example, provided a strikingly modern model of rural accommodation in Rural Residences (1832, Fig. 1.) His plan for the Cottage Orne betrays an emphasis on functionality rather than tradition and bears more than a passing similarity to the architecture of Repton's Brighton and Daniell's India.

Architecture

The golden era of aquatint engraving coincided with an enormous flowering of interest in the outside world, which British artists increasingly viewed as the territory of the exotic. No where was this interest more keenly focused than on Britain's Indian possessions. In A Picturesque Voyage to India (1810, Fig. 2,) Thomas Daniell's second volume of Indian illustrations, the author and illustrator provides a visual attempt to define the inhabitants of Britain's buregeoning Indian possessions. Both the popular reception and the artistic influence of Daniell's effort provide evidence that empire involved mediation--a cultural exchange that, if not equal, was at least two-way. The great garden landscaper and rural enthusiast Humphrey Repton was so impressed with the ornamental details in Daniell's illustrations of Hindu architecture (and the novelty they would afford his designs) that he incorporated them into his Designs for the Pavilion at Brighton (1808, Fig. 3 - Fig. 4.) Repton's long-held interest in rural life reflected a broader interest among English artists. J. B. Papworth, for example, provided a strikingly modern model of rural accommodation in Rural Residences (1832, Fig. 1.) His plan for the Cottage Orne betrays an emphasis on functionality rather than tradition and bears more than a passing similarity to the architecture of Repton's Brighton and Daniell's India.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Natural History

In the second half of the 18th century an intense wave of exploration stoked the fires of a popular scientific interest in the exotic natural world that was already being felt in landscape gardening. The travels of Captain Cook suggested the connection between scientific discovery and artistic achievement, reflected in the appearance of the first comprehensive illustrated flora books as well as some of the finest ornithological and zoological books. That interest in the natural world was accompanied by lushly illustrated depictions owed much to the industrial and agricultural revolutions in Britain, which enabled the sale, and therefore publication, of very attractive and costly books. In France, Napoleon's lavish patronage of the sciences had more to do with the production of impressive illustrated natural history. But there too, by the mid-1820s, the nascent bourgeoisie was creating demand for expensive books.

With Filices Britannicae (1795, Fig. 6,) James Bolton, a Yorkshire naturalist and painter, produced one of the earliest comprehensive illustrated flora books. Thomas Martyn's Thirty-Eight Plates (1788, Fig. 14) sought to illustrate the Linnean system of classification that was all the vogue of the time. With text in English and French, Peter Brown's Nouvelles Illustrations De Zoologie (London, 1776, Fig. 4) provided English and French audiences with a introduction to zoology. Across the English Channel, the Amsterdam publisher J. C. Sepp employed the university professor and well-regarded scientist J. Kops in the execution of Flora Batava (1800, Fig. 15.) Kops was neither a painter nor an engraver, but his expertise lent accuracy to the endeavor that other illustrated books sometimes lacked. Edward Donovan was both painter and engraver of comprehensive treatments of insects and birds, such as The Natural History of British Insects (1791-1801, Fig. 9 - Fig. 13) and The Natural History of British Birds (1795, Fig. 8.) His works were regarded as less accurate than others, but widely admired for their striking and beautiful plates. William Lewin provided another lavish treatment of British birds, which was aided by the larger format of his The Birds of Great Britain (1795, Fig. 1.) The French illustrator R. P. Lesson, employed just the opposite approach. He felt that the subjects of Oiseaux-mouches (1830, Fig. 3,) hummingbirds, were best rendered in a smaller format. Though small, the book was widely acclaimed for the accuracy of its illustrations. In the same year he also published Centurie Zoologique (Fig. 2.) 

By the 1830s, the separation and specialization of the sciences was well underway. Books like Richard Bradley's A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature (1721, Fig. 5,) which sought to "set forth the several gradations remarkable in the mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation," and which would have been directed both at learned and general audiences, became rarer. Books with this dual readership were replaced by learned works with clear but not always especially beautiful illustrations, more popular works with illustrations and text of varying quality and accuracy, and livres deluxes of great size and splendor that were, consequently, beyond the means of most readers, whether men of science or not. But even the color plate books intended for more popular audiences and more practical uses offer the modern reader a testament to the illustrator's craft. The 16th century astrologer and physician Nicholas Culpepper's The Complete Herbal (1835, Fig. 7) became a standard medical resource for the English family. The addition in the late 18th century of large numbers of color plate illustrations enhanced the attractiveness of the book and, more than likely, aided in the effective implementation of its prescriptions.

Selected bibliography

Contributors

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The Library is grateful to be able to exhibit some of the highlights from the collection of Harris N. Hollin, member of the Library's Board of Overseers and of the Council of the Friends of the Library. Mr. Hollin's fine collection brings to the Penn community a marvelous gathering of illustrated books that we would not otherwise be able to glimpse. It is a privilege to have the opportunity to see these treasures, and we thank Mr. Hollin for his generosity in providing the books and for the enthusiasm with which he has approached the project as a whole.

Dr. Kenneth Holston, a recent graduate of the Department of History and member of the Special Collections staff, worked closely with Mr. Hollin in selecting and organizing the materials for exhibit and in writing the text. Greg Bear, the Library's Exhibits Designer, laid out and installed the show with his usual skill and care. To both we are appreciative of their good efforts and work.

Michael Ryan
Director of Special Collections